Towards an Improved Baton Technique: The Application and Modification of Conducting Gestures Drawn from the Methods of Rudolf, Green and Saitō for Enhanced Performance of Orchestral Interpretations
AuthorLee, Ki Sun
Keywordsapplication of conducting
improved baton technique
school of conducting
Committee ChairCockrell, Thomas
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractSince the early nineteenth century, a conductor has led orchestras in concert, rather than the concertmaster or the composer from a keyboard instrument. There is no theory about the function of the conductor or technique for conducting an orchestra or choir in that early period. Early conductors probably imitated the bow motions of the concertmaster, who was the leader of the group of instrumental players. The increasing importance of conducting resulted in conductors who not only cued to indicate entrances and cut offs as the concertmaster did, but also helped the musicians to understand his musical interpretation and play as a unified musical body. The establishment of this new role soon required the training of future generations of conductors and eventually conducting textbooks, with guidelines and other educational material for the apprentice conductor. In this paper, the author explores the historical background of conducting technique and the development of conducting textbooks in the twentieth century. Three conducting textbooks were chosen representing different approaches: Max Rudolf's The Grammar of Conducting; Elizabeth A. H. Green The Modern Conductor; and Hideo Saitō The Saitō Conducting Method. The author analyzes the conducting theory presented in each textbook and pinpoints the strengths and weaknesses of the three schools. He then suggested integrates beat patterns, combining elements from them, proposes more effective conducting gestures for his interpretation of the music. The focus for these integrated beat patterns is on the physical gestures and patterns of the right hand, not left hand gestures or specific expressive gestures. Chapter 2 summarizes the characteristics of the three conducting theories. Chapter 3 analyzes the basic characteristic motions of each school. Chapters 4 through 6 propose adaptations of conducting gestures, drawing from the three schools to interpret challenging sections of the examples: Marche royale from Histoire du Soldat by Igor Stravinsky, Adagio for Strings by Samuel Barber, and the Ouverture: Die Hebriden by Felix Mendelssohn. For the most effective performance of the author s interpretations, proposed integrated beat patterns are suggested for the phrases shown in the musical examples. Some of the beat patterns are presented in diagrams to show the integrated beat pattern, derived from the author s synthesis of the basic five motions of the three schools adapted from the three schools.
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
The influence of electrically conductive and non-conductive nanocomposite scaffolds on the maturation and excitability of engineered cardiac tissuesNavaei, Ali; Rahmani Eliato, Kiarash; Ros, Robert; Migrino, Raymond Q; Willis, Brigham C; Nikkhah, Mehdi; Univ Arizona, Coll Med (ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2019-01-29)Utilization of electrically conductive nanomaterials for developing nanocomposite scaffolds has been at the center of attention for engineering functional cardiac tissues. The primary motive in the use of conductive nanomaterials has been to develop biomimetic scaffolds to recapitulate the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the native heart and to promote cardiac tissue maturity, excitability and electrical signal propagation. Alternatively, it is well accepted that the inclusion of nanomaterials also alters the stiffness and nano-scale topography of the scaffolds. However, what is missing in the literature is that to what extent the sole presence of nanomaterials within a scaffold, regardless of their conductivity, influences the maturation and excitability of engineered cardiac tissues. To address this knowledge gap, we developed four different classes of gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels, with varied concentrations, embedded electrically conductive gold nanorods (GNRs) and non-conductive silica nanomaterials (SNPs), to assess the influence of matrix stiffness and the presence of nanomaterials on cardiac cell adhesion, protein expression (i.e. maturation), and tissue-level excitability. Our results demonstrated that either embedding nanomaterials (i.e. GNRs and SNPs) or increasing the matrix stiffness significantly promoted cellular retention and the expression of cardiac-specific markers, including sarcomeric α-actinin (SAC), cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and connexin43 (Cx43) gap junctions. Notably, excitation voltage thresholds at a high frequency (i.e. 2 Hz and higher), in both coupled and uncoupled gap junctions induced by heptanol, were lower for scaffolds embedded conductive GNRs or non-conductive SNPs, independent of matrix stiffness. Overall, our findings demonstrated that the sole presence of nanomaterials within the scaffolding matrix had a more pronounced influence as compared to the scaffold stiffness on the cell-cell coupling, maturation and excitability of engineered cardiac tissues.
Commercial Fertilizer Tests Conducted on Pinto Beans, Small Grains, and Potatoes and Variety Tests Conducted of Pinto Beans and Potates in Coconino CountyUniversity of Arizona. Agricultural Extension Service. County Agricultural Agents.; Brechan, William M. (University of Arizona, 1950)
Hydraulic-Conductivity Measurements of Reattachment Bars on the Colorado RiverPetroutson, William D.; Bennett, Jeffery B.; Parnell, Roderic A.; Springer, Abraham E.; Geology Department, Northern Arizona University (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1995-04-22)