Learning and Memory and Supporting Neural Architecture in the Cockroach, Periplaneta americana
AuthorLent, David D
AdvisorStrausfeld, Nicholas J
Committee ChairStrausfeld, Nicholas J
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractThe cockroach, with its large brain and physiological resilience, holds many advantages for the development of behavioral paradigms. The work presented here provides a foundation for, and describes the results of, the implementation of studies of neural correlates of learning and memory on restrained animals.Using the antennal projection response (APR) as an indicator of learning and retention, several learning paradigms have been developed. A visual-olfactory associative and a gustatory-olfactory aversive conditioning paradigm demonstrated a plastic behavior that could be driven in an intact and immobilized cockroach. Conditioning the APR to a visual cue paired with an olfactory cue characterized the role of unilateral and bilateral olfactory input in learning and memory. While unilateral olfactory input is sufficient to learn a visual-olfactory association, bilateral olfactory input is necessary for long-term retention of the association. This comparison identified a critical time period in which memory is consolidated. This time period was subsequently used to analyze gene expression during memory consolidation.The split-brain cockroach preparation was developed to investigate what parts of the brain are necessary and sufficient for learning and retention of a visual-olfactory association; this preparation was also used to examine learning-induced changes in test tissue versus control tissue provided by the same animal. Evidence suggests that half of a brain is sufficient for a visual-olfactory association to be established and sufficient for retention of that association between 12 and 24 hours. However, the entire brain is necessary for long-term memory to be established. Using the split-brain cockroach simultaneously as the control and the test subject, learning-induced alterations in the microglomerular synaptic complexes of the calyces were identified in the trained half, but not in the naÃ¯ve half.Using the APR, spatial learning and memory was examined. Multiple representations of space were revealed in the brain of the cockroach. Cockroaches represent space in terms of an olfactory gradient map, as well as the visuospatial relationship between objects. When both representations of space can be utilized by the cockroach to localize a cue, the positional visual cue is the one that determines the behavioral response.