AuthorBanihani, Qais Hisham
AdvisorField, James A.
Committee ChairField, James A.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractDomestic wastewater is the most abundant type of wastewater. Direct discharge of untreated domestic wastewater has environmental and public health risks due to the presence of organics, nutrients and pathogens. Application of anaerobic processes for the treatment of domestic sewage, which at present is largely treated by aerobic processes, has drawn considerable attention recently. Anaerobic processes can be applied for the removal of organic matter (methanogenesis) and nitrogen (anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox)).The toxicity of fluoride to methanogenesis was investigated. The results indicate that acetoclastic were more susceptible to fluoride than hydrogenotrophic methanogens. The concentration of fluoride causing 50% inhibition (IC50) to acetoclastic ranged from 18.1 to 155.7 mg L-1 while for hydrogenotrophic methanogens was > 400.0 mg L-1.The feasibility of a combined system consisting of anaerobic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) followed by aerobic activated sludge (AS) reactor for removal of carbonaceous and nitrogenous contaminants from strong synthetic sewage (2.5 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) L-1) was also studied. The average combined removal of total COD, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and protein was higher than 89.0%, 99.0% and 97.0%; respectively. Extensive nitrification (96.0%) was observed when dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was > 2.0 mg L-1. In contrast, only partial nitrification occurred when the AS received high organic loads and/or the DO level was below 2.0 mg L-1.The inhibitory effect of nitrite and nitrate on methanogenesis was evaluated. Methanogenic activity was inhibited by the presence of NOx- compounds (i.e., nitrite and nitrate). The inhibition imparted by nitrate was not due to the nitrate itself, but rather to its reduced intermediate, nitrite. The toxicity of NOx- to methanogens was found to be reversible after all the NOx- were reduced during denitrification.Moreover, the development of Anammox enrichment cultures was evaluated. Anammox cultures were successfully developed using sludge samples collected from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as inocula but not from methanogenic granular sludges. Return activated sludge (RAS) collected from WWTP operating for biological nitrogen removal had the highest intrinsic level of Anammox activity. RAS Anammox culture was developed rapidly within 40 days with a doubling time of 6.8 days.
Degree ProgramEnvironmental Engineering