Quorum Sensing and Phenazines are Involved in Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas Chlororaphis (aureofaciens) Strain 30-84
AuthorMaddula, V S R Krishna
AdvisorPierson, Leland S.
Committee ChairPierson, Leland S.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractPseudomonas chlororaphis (aureofaciens) 30-84 is a biocontrol bacterium effective against take-all disease of wheat. Phenazine (PZ) production by strain 30-84 is the primary mechanism responsible for pathogen inhibition and the rhizosphere persistence of 30-84. The PhzR/PhzI system of strain 30-84 directly regulates PZ production and mutations in this QS system are defective in biofilm formation. Genetic complementation or direct addition of AHL signal restored biofilm formation to a phzI mutant. Mutations in PZ biosynthesis were equally defective in biofilm formation. Addition of PZ or genetic complementation of the PZ biosynthetic mutation restored biofilm formation. QS and PZ production also were involved in the establishment of populations on wheat seeds and plant roots. Presence of 10% wild type strain 30-84 in mixtures with QS or PZ mutants restored root colonization. These data demonstrate that QS and specifically PZ production are essential for biofilm formation by strain 30-84. This is a new role for PZs in the rhizosphere community.Strain 30-84 produces primarily phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) and 2-hydroxy-PCA (2-OH-PCA). We generated derivatives of strain 30-84 that produced the same total amount of PZs as the wild type but produced only PCA, or more efficiently converted PCA to 2-OH-PCA. These derivatives with altered PZ ratios differed from the wild type in initial attachment, biofilm architecture, and dispersal. Increased 2-OH-PCA production increased initial attachment, although both alterations resulted in thicker biofilms and reduced dispersal rates. Loss of 2-OH-PCA production resulted in a significant reduction in pathogen inhibition. My findings indicate that alterations in the endogenous ratios of PZs have wide-ranging effects on the biology of strain 30-84. I initiated studies to understand the mechanisms by which PZs affect surface attachment and biofilm development. Addition of PZs to metabolically inactivated cells improved adhesion compared to the inactive cells alone, suggesting that PZs may improve initial binding to surfaces. Results from whole genome transcription profiles of wild type strain 30-84 to a PZ mutant indicate that genes potentially involved in biofilm formation were up-regulated in the presence of PZs. These results provide initial evidence that PZs may modulate cell adhesion and biofilm formation via multiple mechanisms.
Degree ProgramPlant Pathology