Neuropeptides in the RVM Promote Descending Facilitation and Abnormal Pain
AuthorMarshall, Timothy McCoy
Keywordsrostral ventromedial medulla
AdvisorVanderah, Todd W
Committee ChairVanderah, Todd W
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractThe neuropeptides dynorphin and cholecystokinin (CCK), and their associated pronociceptive effects were investigated in the RVM. Utilizing a nerve-injury model (SNL), RT-PCR analysis revealed increases (p<0.05) of prodynorphin mRNA, and bradyinkin, B1- and B2-receptor mRNA, post-SNL, 14-days, 2-days, and 14-days, respectively. Administration of dynorphin into the RVM produced both acute and long-lasting (>30-days) tactile hypersensitivity. Administration of the B1-antagonist, DALBK and the B2-antagonist, Hoe-140, into the RVM significantly attenuated dynorphin-induced tactile hypersensitivity. Nerve-injury induced tactile hypersensitivity was significantly reversed by RVM administration of dynorphin antiserum or the B2-antagonist, Hoe-140. These data suggest that dynorphin is up-regulated in the RVM in nerve-injury, and via the activation of bradykinin receptors in the RVM, produces abnormal pain. Like dynorphin, CCK is up-regulated in the RVM in nerve-injury, with studies suggesting that elevated levels of CCK in the RVM mediate pronociceptive activity through CCK2 receptor activation, resulting in enhanced spinal nociceptive transmission. At present, it is unknown what key neurotransmitters are mediating this RVM CCK-driven effect at the level of the spinal cord. Here, spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of serotonin (5-HT) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured in the lumbar spinal cord in naÃ¯ve rats following CCK administration into the RVM. Following RVM CCK microinjection, an approximate 5-fold increase in spinal (CSF) PGE2 levels was observed, as compared to baseline controls. PGE2 levels showed a progressive increase with peak levels observed at the 80-minute post-CCK injection timepoint, whereas 5-HT levels in the spinal CSF remained unchanged following CCK administration into the RVM. This release of PGE2 coincided with the timecourse for CCK-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. Administration of the CCK2-antagonist YM022 prior to CCK into the RVM, significantly attenuated (>50%) the release of PGE2 in the spinal cord. The non-selective COX-inhibitor naproxen and the 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron, both administered intrathecally, significantly attenuated RVM CCK-induced hindpaw tactile hypersensitivity. In summary, these data suggest a bradykinin- or CCK2-receptor antagonist could be used alone or in conjunction with current therapies in the treatment of chronic pain.
Degree ProgramMedical Pharmacology