Spanish Heritage Language Development: A Causal-Comparative Study Exploring the Differential Effects of Heritage Versus Foreign Language Curriculum
AuthorBeaudrie, Sara Mariel
KeywordsHeritage language development
heritage language pedagogy
heritage versus foreign language curricula comparison
AdvisorAriew, Robert A.
Committee ChairAriew, Robert A.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractDual tracks - for Foreign (FL) and Heritage languages (HL) - in Spanish language programs are becoming increasingly common in U.S. higher education institutions, although most only offer HL courses for intermediate and/or advanced learners. Few universities have incorporated specialized courses for receptive bilinguals into their programs. Contradictory arguments can be found in the HL education literature regarding the type of curriculum (FL or HL) that would best serve the pedagogical needs of these students (Carreira, 2004; Lipski, 1996; Potowski, 2005).This study attempts to offer insights into this discussion by examining the effects of these two types of curricula on the written and oral language development of three groups of learners: two groups of HL learners enrolled in HL and FL courses, and a group of FL learners taking the same FL courses. The purpose of this study is four-fold: 1) delineate a profile of receptive bilinguals; 2) measure changes in oral and written production and other language-related variables after one semester of instruction; 3) examine the students' level of satisfaction with the language curriculum; and 4) uncover linguistic differences between FL and HL learners. The data collection consisted of series of written and oral-elicitation tasks and online questionnaires at the beginning and end of the semester.The results showed that all groups made significant gains in writing fluency and complexity but only the HL group in the HL course significantly improved their writing accuracy. Both HL groups made greater gains in oral fluency and complexity than the FL group but the HL group in the HL course outperformed both groups in syntactic complexity gains. The HL group in the HL course showed the highest level of satisfaction and the greatest improvement in self-confidence and language attitudes but no differences in language use outside the classroom and self-evaluation of language abilities. The results offer implications for the inclusion of receptive bilinguals in HL programs, their language placement, and pedagogical and curricular practices most suitable for these students in the HL classroom.
Degree ProgramSecond Language Acquisition & Teaching
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
The Ideology of U.S. Spanish in Foreign and Heritage Language Curricula: Insights from Textbooks and Instructor Focus GroupsWaugh, Linda R.; Al Masaeed, Katharine Burns; Waugh, Linda R.; Fielder, Grace E.; Gilmore, Perry; Hernández, Todd A. (The University of Arizona., 2014)According to data from the U.S. Census Bureau (2012), the United States is the world's fifth most populous Spanish-speaking country, with over 35 million Spanish-speakers. In addition, Spanish is the most widely taught foreign language in the United States, with more students enrolled in Spanish at the higher-education level than in all other modern languages combined, as detailed in a 2010 report from the Modern Language Association (MLA). How are these two realities connected? Is the United States' status as a top Spanish-speaking country reflected in Spanish as a Foreign Language (SFL) and Spanish as a Heritage Language (SHL) curricula at the university level? This case study of a large, Southwestern university, which is home to SFL and SHL programs among the largest in the country, explores that question using a two-tiered approach. First, Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is employed to examine the ideological underpinnings of how spoken varieties of Spanish, with particular emphasis on U.S. Spanish, are presented in first-year and second-year university-level SFL and SHL textbooks used at the university. Second, focus groups of SFL and SHL instructors are conducted to gain insight into their beliefs and practices regarding language variety in the classroom. The study finds a systematic reinforcement of the ideology of a monolithic 'standard' Spanish in the SFL and SHL textbooks and curricula, with only cursory attention paid to regional varieties of Spanish and an oftentimes explicit de-legitimization of U.S. Spanish in particular.
SPANISH HERITAGE LANGUAGE SOCIALIZATION PRACTICES OF A FAMILY OF MEXICAN ORIGINRubinstein-Avila, Eliane B.; Delgado, Maria Rocio; Rubinstein-Avila, Eliane B.; Carvalho, Ana M.; Reyes, Iliana; Rubinstein-Avila, Eliane B.; Waugh, Linda R. (The University of Arizona., 2009)This ethnographic case study describes the patterns of language socialization and literacy/biliteracy practices and the patterns of language choice and language use of a Spanish heritage bilingual family of Mexican origin from the participant perspective, the emic view, and the research perspective, an etic view. This analysis attempts to broaden the knowledge of how Mexican origin families use language at home by demonstrating how literacy/biliteracy practices (i.e., reading, writing and talk/conversation), language choice (i.e., Spanish, English, code-switching (CS)) and language use (i.e., domains) contribute to reinforce, develop or hinder the use of Spanish as a heritage language. Using ethnographic methodology, this study analyzes the participants' naturally occurring language interactions. Socialization and language learning are seen as intricately interwoven processes in which language learners participate actively.The analysis and discussion is presented in two sections: 1) language socialization in conjunction with literacy practices, and 2) language socialization in conjunction with language choice and CS. Language choice and CS are analyzed by means of conversation analysis theory (CA): the analysis of language sequences of the participants' conversation. The description of the domains (i.e., what participants do with each language and the way they use language) constitutes the basis for the analysis.The findings of this study show that language shift to English is imminent in an environment of reduced contact with parents, siblings, and the community of the heritage language group. Understanding which literacy practices are part of the everyday life of Hispanic households is relevant to the implementation of classroom literacy practices.
Spanish with An Attitude: Critical Translingual Competence for Spanish Heritage Language LearnersCarvalho, Ana M.; Gorman, Lillian; Herrera-Dulcet, Andrea; Duran, Leah (The University of Arizona., 2019)In the last two decades the field of Spanish heritage language education has been concerned with the reproduction of Standard Language Ideologies (henceforth: SLI) within the language classroom (Carvalho, 2012; Leeman, 2005; Martinez, 2003, Toribio & Duran; Leeman & Serafini, 2018). Scholarly works suggest that critical pedagogies that include sociolinguistic topics and examine them critically encourage critical translingual development (henceforth: CTC), which can equip SHLLs to identify SLI and ultimately challenge linguistic subordination. Yet, practitioners struggle to characterize such pedagogies and the field is in dire need of proposals than can systematically implement and assess sociolinguistically informed critical pedagogies (henceforth: SICP). The present dissertation comprises three correlated but independent studies that examine the implementation, assessment and long-term implications for SICP in the courses for Spanish heritage language learners. Qualitative and quantitative data includes instructor journals, anonymous online survey and over 12 hours of focus group interviews. Using Action Research methodology, statistical analysis, and Critical Discourse Analysis, the present study reports on (1) the creation of a SICP and (2) the impact of SICP in developing SHLLs’ CTC, (3) and whether SICP prepare students to challenge SLIs beyond the classroom walls. Mixed-methods analysis revealed that SICP can be included in existing curricula and that SHLLs welcome these approaches, especially as they encourage SHLL’s linguistic agency. Additionally, survey data supported that through SICP students developed CTC, a s well as shift positively their attitudes towards the home language. Finally, focus groups with students four to five months after the course underscored the long-term maintenance of CTC amongst SHLLS, as well as the creation of “language expert identities” that carry CTC from inside the classroom to the outside. In conclusion, this dissertation provides substantial contributions to the fields of Heritage Language Education, U.S. Spanish sociolinguistics, and Educational Linguistics by showcasing how to create and enact a SICP for heritage language learners, by establishing direct connections between SICP and the development of SHLLs’ CTC, as well as providing a quantitative tool to measure SHLLs’ CTC in any classroom setting. Finally, the present dissertation participates in scholarly conversations in the field by documenting the impact of SICP in fostering “language expert” identities that carry students’ CTC into to their communities, ultimately challenging SLI beyond the classroom.