Becoming "Fully" Hopi: The Role of Hopi Language in the Contemporary Lives Of Hopi Youth--A Hopi Case Study of Language Shift and Vitality
AuthorNicholas, Sheilah Ernestine
McCarty, Teresa L.
Committee ChairLomawaima, Tsianina
McCarty, Teresa L.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractThere exists a fundamental difference in how today's Hopi youth are growing up from that of their parents and grandparents--Hopi youth are not acquiring the Hopi language. This sociolinguistic situation raises many questions about the vitality and continuity of the Hopi language.Two key findings emerged from the study of three Hopi young adults. First, the study showed that cultural experiences are key to developing a personal and cultural identity as Hopi, but a linguistic competence in Hopi, especially in ceremonial contexts, is fundamental to acquiring a complete sense of being Hopi. Secondly, the effect of modern circumstances apparent in behavior and attitude among Hopi is evidence of another shift--a move away from a collective maintenance of language as cultural practice to the maintenance of language and cultural practice as a personal choice of use.
Degree ProgramAmerican Indian Studies
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Acquisition versus long-term retention of Japanese words and syntax by children and adults: Implications for the critical period hypothesis in second language learning.Boswell, Paul Duane (The University of Arizona., 1993)The critical period hypothesis for second language learning, which states that young children learn additional languages better than adults, lacks unambiguous empirical support as well as a coherent theoretical model. An experimental study was conducted which analyzed child-adult differences in difficulty of acquisition and long-term retention for rules of syntax and words in Japanese, a language unfamiliar to the subjects. The results of this study found no advantage for children over adults either in acquisition or long-term memory. However, relative to the difficulty of acquisition, the children had lower forgetting rates for words than for rules when both materials were learned completely. In the lexical study, the children's performance at retention was closer to the adults' than at acquisition, whereas in the syntax study, the opposite was the case. These results confirm the existence of developmental differences in the forgetting rates of different materials. Such results imply that, if there is an advantage for learning language at an early age, it might be localized in lexical retention.
Contextualizing Technology: Designing Indigenous Language CALL ProgramsAlexander, Bri (The University of Arizona., 2018)An astounding number of global Indigenous communities work ceaselessly to reclaim and revitalize their languages after many years of suppression by colonization and dominant societies. Each community and individual learner brings myriad unique needs and desires to heritage language learning, including the need for community and cultural engagement in addition to fluency. With an increase in using technology for language learning, computer-assisted language learning (CALL) programs could be useful resources for Indigenous language learners if first adapted to support Indigenous languages. While CALL allows immense customization of programs to satisfying learner needs and linguistic diversity, BLOOM is the first and only organization to develop an Indigenous language CALL program (i.e., a program built solely for Indigenous languages and to meet the needs of Indigenous communities). Investigating BLOOM, this research analyzes a case study of the developmental process of BLOOM’s first course, including curriculum development, design decisions, engineering challenges, and the experience of partnering with the Cherokee Nation to develop a Cherokee language course. This research asserts that developers must collaborate directly with the Indigenous community during every step of the building process when developing Indigenous language CALL programs, and provides a 10-step Community-Collaborative Building Model to guide the process. The model reveals the importance of building curriculum tailored to the distinct needs of the Indigenous community, working actively and intentionally to build trust with the community, and constantly using the program to empower Indigenous communities via language learning. Overall, when producing Indigenous language CALL programs, CALL developers must adapt to meet the needs of the community, the learners, and those needs in context.