AdvisorCress, Anne E.
Committee ChairCress, Anne E.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractCancer metastasis is a multi-stage process initiated by the cancer cell acquiring the ability to migrate. The protein profile of such a cell undergoes dramatic changes including changes in integrin expression. Integrins play a major role in cell adhesion, motility, differentiation, blood clotting, tissue organization and cell growth as well as cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Integrin a6, which can pair with integrin b4 or b1 is a laminin receptor and is detected in epithelial cells. Earlier studies have reported uPA mediated integrin a6 cleavage in prostate cancer resulting in loss of the ligand binding domain. Site-directed mutagenesis studies have identified the cleavage site to be at R594R595 located in the "stalk" region of the integrin a6. Prostate cancer cells PC3N-a6-RR cells, bearing a R594R595 to A594A595 mutation, engineered to express the uncleavable form of integrin a6 were found to migrate 6.4 folds lesser on Laminin-1 as compared to the PC3N-a6-WT cells which expressed the wild-type integrin a6. This result suggests that integrin a6 cleavage enhances migration. Prostate cancer is known to metastasize to the bone. Injection of the PC3N-a6-WT cells in mouse femurs resulted in increased bone destruction and pain behavior when compared to the femurs injected with PC3N-a6-RR cells indicating that the integrin a6 cleavage could affect and modify the bone microenvironment. An observation that complete conversion of integrin a6 to a6p was not observed in cell lines even in presence of excess uPA suggested a regulatory mechanism. Integrins are known to associate with many proteins including tetraspanins, which are transmembrane proteins, that function as protein adapters. Integrin a6 was found to be refractory to uPA mediated cleavage when complexed with tetraspanin CD151. The amount of integrin a6 available for cleavage increased when CD151 levels were decreased by CD151 siRNA treatment. These results suggest that the integrin a6 available and unavailable for cleavage can be modulated by interaction with CD151 and hence affect the migratory potential of the cell. Collectively these data suggest that integrin a6 cleavage can enhance cell migration, initiate signals to modify the tumor microenvironment and can be regulated by interaction with tetraspanin CD151.
Degree ProgramMolecular & Cellular Biology