Regulation Of Membrane-Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase In Prostate Cancer
AuthorSroka, Isis Calsoyas
AdvisorBowden, George Timothy
Nagle, Raymond B.
Committee ChairBowden, George Timothy
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractMembrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a metalloproteinase which becomes upregulated in prostate cancer and has been implicated in processes of prostate cancer metastasis. Here, we show that MT1-MMP is minimally expressed in nonmalignant primary prostate cells, moderately expressed in DU-145 cells, and highly expressed in invasive PC-3 and PC-3N cells. Using MT1-MMP promoter reporters and mobility shift assays, we show that Sp1 regulates MT1-MMP expression in DU-145, PC-3, and PC-3N cells and in PC3-N cells using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis and silencing RNA. Investigation of signaling pathways in these cells showed that DU-145 cells express constitutively phosphorylated extracellular stress-regulated kinase (ERK), whereas PC-3 and PC-3N cells express constitutively phosphorylated AKT/PKB and c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase (JNK). We show that MT1-MMP and Sp1 levels are decreased in PC-3 and PC-3N cells when PI-3K and JNK are inhibited, and that MT1-MMP levels are decreased in DU-145 cells when MEK is inhibited. Transient transfection of PC-3 and PC-3N cells with a dominant-negative JNK or p85, and DU-145 cells with a dominant negative ERK, reduced MT1-MMP promoter activity. We also identified the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1R) as an upstream regulatory component of MT1-MMP in PC-3N and LNCaP cells, which express high and low levels of the enzyme, respectively. Treatment of PC-3N cells with an IGF-1R specific inhibitor decreased MT1-MMP promoter activity, RNA and protein levels. Additionally, treatment of LNCaP cells with a synthetic androgen to increase IGF-1R levels and subsequent treatment with IGF-I increased MT1-MMP promoter activity, RNA and protein levels. Analysis of MT1-MMP and IGF-1R expression in human prostate cancer tissues demonstrated that MT1-MMP expression was high in the apical cytoplasmic regions of PIN and prostate cancer and less intense in the basalateral cytoplasmic membrane regions of benign glands. IGF-1R was expressed in normal glands and highly expressed in prostate cancer. In conclusion, we have identified several novel mechanisms regulating MT1-MMP expression in prostate cancer cell lines as well as differential localization of the enzyme in human prostate cancer tissues. These results provide insight into the complex mechanisms of prostate cancer metastasis and may be useful for developing future diagnostic procedures or therapies.
Degree ProgramCancer Biology