Committee ChairPagel, Mark D.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractIn the early 1920s, Otto Warburg demonstrated that tumor cells have a capacity to convert glucose and other substrates into lactic acid instead of CO2 and water, even under aerobic conditions. Consequently, Warburg assumed that the intracellular pH (pHi) of tumor was acidic. However, later studies have shown that maintenance of pHi within a pH range of 7.0-7.2 is necessary for normal cellular proliferation and that the extracellular pH (pHe) is partially acidic in solid tumors. A low pHe may be an important factor inducing invasive behavior in tumor cells. Research into causes and consequences of this acid pH of tumors are highly dependent on accurate, precise and reproducible measurements. Techniques for measuring tissue pHi and pHe have undergone great changes since 1950s. From microelectrode and dye distribution studies, measurement of pH underwent a revolution with the advent of pH-sensitive dyes that could be loaded into the cytosol. Further significant advances have come from the measurement of cell and tissue pH in whole organisms by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pH-sensitive Positron Emission Tomography (PET) radiotracers.
Degree ProgramBiomedical Engineering