Physical Activity in Puerto Rican Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Committee ChairCrist, Janice D.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractDiabetes mellitus (DM) has been the third leading cause of death in Puerto Rico (PR) since 1989. According to the PR Diabetes Center for Data Management, the prevalence of complications associated with diabetes in PR include: ischemic heart disease, renal failure and cerebro-vascular events, among others. Although physical activity has been identified as an integral part of preventing diabetes disease and complications in people already diagnosed, only 32.6% of the population engages in 30 minutes of moderate physical activity daily.The purpose of this descriptive-correlational study was to explore physical activity self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancies (perceived physical activity benefits and barriers) as possible factors that affect physical activity level in Puerto Rican adults diagnosed with type 2 DM. The guiding theoretical foundation was Self-efficacy-Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). An exploratory data analysis was conducted to determine the effects of socio-demographic variables on the principal variables. The contribution of socio-demographic factors, body mass index and the medical diagnosis to the prediction of principal variables were also explored.A sample of 110 Puerto Rican men and women between 40-60 years of age, with a mean of 52.2 years were recruited from four settings. Data was collected through a Demographic Data Questionnaire, Exercise Self-efficacy Scale, Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale and International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Qualitative data were gathered to identify additional benefits and barriers that were not included in the questionnaire.The median for the moderate to vigorous physical activity reported by the sample was 82.5 minutes per week. The relationship between self-efficacy beliefs and physical activity was significant but moderate (rs=.32, p = .001). No significant association was observed between perceived benefits and physical activity (rs =.09, p = .38). Also, no significant association was observed between perceived barriers and physical activity level (rs = -.17, p = .07). The correlation between self-efficacy beliefs and perceived benefits was significant and moderate (rs = .46, p < .001). The correlation between self-efficacy beliefs and perceived barriers was significant, moderate and negative (r= -.40, p <.001). Self-efficacy was the only significant predictor of physical activity.The low physical activity and the high rate of overweight and obesity are significant risk factors for the development of chronic complications and low quality of life that threaten Puerto Rican adults with type 2 DM. Physical activity is an essential component of a healthy life-style and important to achieve a better self-management of diabetes disease. Self-efficacy had relevance to the enhancement of physical activity in this population. The research findings support the importance of SCT in both nursing research and practice. SCT is important in future research because, as exemplified in this study, it provides an approach to explain physical activity behavior. SCT is important for practice; because addressing principal variables of the theory can promote the development of innovative interventional programs for Puerto Rican adults with type 2 DM.