The Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Novel DFG-out Allosteric Kinase Inhibitors
AuthorDietrich, Justin David
Committee ChairHurley, Laurence H
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractToday, current drug discovery and lead generation efforts focus on high throughput screening of large chemical libraries as the primary source of lead candidates. A lack of investment in novel chemotype development by pharmaceutical companies over the last 15 years coupled with the concurrent merger of screening collections and the availability of generic compound libraries commercially have resulted in many discovery efforts that lack uniqueness and do not offer a strong patent position to operate. The need for better, more diverse, and more drug-like libraries is essential in order to feed high throughput screening efforts with molecules that probe new dimensions of chemical space and allow for the discovery of untapped intellectual property.This dissertation details a complete structure based study to design novel inhibitors of B-Raf and p38a MAP Kinase. A structural evaluation of the important and similar interactions necessary for DFG-out allosteric inhibitors to bind their respective targets was accomplished through the synthesis and evaluation of three known allosteric kinase inhibitors, GleevecÂ®, NexavarÂ®, and BIRB-796, and 8 additional DFG-out allosteric inhibitors that were developed directly from fragments of these successful scaffolds. The structural insight that was gained from the evaluation of known DFG-out allosteric inhibitors was then utilized to design novel inhibitors that incorporated two unique scaffolds based on two new [3+2] cycloaddition reactions.A pyrrolo-3,4-dicarboximide scaffold has been developed through the utilization of a novel tandem [3+2] cycloaddition then elimination reaction scheme. This scaffold, which contains three sites for variation, was then rationally incorporated into lead molecules using structure-based methods and in silico feedback for the production of dual DFG-out allosteric kinase inhibitors of p38a and B-Raf kinase. These inhibitors display micromolar to submicromolar enzymatic IC50's for both p38a and B-Raf kinase and low micromolar inhibition of cell growth in 4 separate cancer cell lines.We also explored new chemistry that utilizes a key one pot, [3+2] cycloaddition reaction to obtain highly substituted imidazoles and their application in the design of specific allosteric B-Raf inhibitors. Inhibitors based on this scaffold display subnanomolar potency and a favorable kinase profile.
Degree ProgramPharmaceutical Sciences