Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Alters the Three Stages of Hepatic Drug Management
KeywordsCytochrome P450 enzymes
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
AdvisorCherrington, Nathan J.
Committee ChairCherrington, Nathan J.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractIn pharmacotherapeutics, the term "correct dosing" is based on the concept that too high a systemic concentration will lead to drug toxicity, while drug levels that are too low may not produce the intended therapeutic effect. Often, the factors determining the ability of a patient to manage a given dose rely on their capacity to efficiently metabolize and eliminate drugs from the body. The liver plays a crucial role in the processing of many clinically relevant drugs via three stages of hepatic drug management. Drugs must first be taken into hepatocytes by uptake transporters. Drugs are then metabolized by phase I and phase II enzymes to make them more manageable. Finally, metabolites are removed from the hepatocyte by efflux transporters either into the bile for elimination or reintroduction to systemic blood. Alterations in one or more of the hepatic drug management stages increase the potential for adverse drug reactions (ADRs).In the United States, ADRs account for between 3%-12% of admissions to hospitals, and approximately 5% of deaths each year. While less than 20% of these cases are due to genetic polymorphisms, the vast majority of ADRs are due to environmental factors including disease. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a spectrum of conditions progressing from steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and often leading to cirrhosis. Presently, NASH patients represent the greatest population of candidates for liver transplant, illustrating the severity as well as the incidence of this disease. Patients with NAFLD are typically treated for co-existing conditions of the metabolic syndrome (i.e. hyperlipidemina or type II diabetes) and therefore represent a distinct population at risk for adverse drug reactions.The following studies show that experimental NAFLD affects both the signal transduction pathways regulating hepatic drug management genes as well as the hepatic uptake transporter function. Additionally, patient livers diagnosed with progressive stages of NAFLD, display altered CYP activity and efflux transporter expression similar to those previously reported in experimental NAFLD. Given that changes observed in experimental NAFLD result in functional changes in hepatic drug management, similar changes observed in patients with this disease suggest an increased risk for ADRs.
Degree ProgramPharmacology & Toxicology