CHARACTERIZATION OF CHARGE INJECTION PROCESSES OF THIN FILMS ON INDIUM TIN OXIDE ELECTRODES USING A NOVEL SPECTROELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNIQUE: POTENTIAL-MODULATED ATTENUATED TOTAL REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY
Keywordscharge injection rates
indium tin oxide
AdvisorSaavedra, S. Scott
Committee ChairSaavedra, S. Scott
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractUnderstanding interfacial charge injection processes is one of the key factors needed for development of efficient organic electronic devices, such as biosensors and energy conversion systems, since these processes control the electrical characteristics of these devices. Spectroelectrochemical characterization of electron transfer processes occurring at the electrode - electroactive thin film interface has been evaluated to improve our understanding of charge transfer kinetics using a novel form of electroreflectance spectroscopy, potential-modulated attenuated total reflectance (PM-ATR), which makes it possible to sensitively monitor spectroscopic changes in thin films as a function of applied potential.PM-ATR was used to evaluate three different redox-active films deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes to investigate: i) the orientation dependence of charge transfer rates of thin films of biomolecules, ii) surface treatment and modification effects on charge transfer kinetics of conducting polymers and, iii) estimation of rates of electron injection and conduction band edge of semiconductor nanocrystalline materials.First, Prussian blue film as a model system was used successfully to examine the PM-ATR technique for determination of the charge transfer rate constant between ITO and a molecular film.Second, an anisotropic and redox active protein film, cytochrome c, was used to probe charge transfer rates with respect to molecular orientation. The electron transfer rate measured using TM polarized light was four-fold greater than that measured using TE polarized light. These data are the first to correlate a distribution of molecular orientations with a distribution of electron transfer rates in a redox-active molecular film.Third, the effects of ITO surface treatment and modification on charge transfer kinetics on a conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene/)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS), were studied. The apparent interfacial charge transfer rate constant for PEDOT/PSS on ITO has been reported for the first time which cannot be measured otherwise with conventional electrochemistry due to high non-Faradaic background of PEDOT/PSS films.Fourth, PM-ATR enabled characterization of reversible redox processes between submonolayer coverages of surface-tethered, CdSe nanocrystals and ITO for the first time. Optically determined onset potentials for electron injection were used for estimation for the conduction band and valance band energies (ECB and EVB, respectively).