Compact Symmetric Spaces, Triangular Factorization, and Cayley Coordinates
AdvisorPickrell, Douglas M.
Committee ChairPickrell, Douglas M.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractLet X be a simply connected, compact Riemannian symmetric space. We can represent X as the homogeneous space U/K, where U is a simply connected compact Lie group, and K is the fixed point set of an involution θ of U. Let G be the complexification of U. We consider the intersections of the image of the Cartan embedding Φ : U/K → U ⊂ G : uK → uu⁻ᶿ with the strata of the Birkhoff (or triangular, or LDU) decomposition G = ⫫(w∈W) ∑(G/w), ∑(G/w) = N⁻wHN⁺ relative to a θ-stable decomposition of the Lie algebra, g = n⁻ ⊕h ⊕ n⁺. For a generic element g in this intersection, g ∈ Φ(U/K) ∩ ∑(G/1), this yields a unique triangular factorization g = ldu. Our main contribution is to produce explicit formulas for the diagonal term d in classical cases, using Cayley coordinates (this choice of coordinate is motivated by considerations beyond sheer convenience). These formulas have several applications: 1) we can compute π₀(Φ(U/K) \ ∩ ∑(G/1) ) explicitly; 2) we can compute ʃ(Φ(U/K))ᵃΦ^-iλ (where ᵃΦ is the positive part of d) using elementary techniques in rank 1 cases; 3) they are useful in explicitly calculating Evens-Lu Poisson structures on U=K (see [Caine(2006)]). Our set-up involves choosing specific representations of the various u in su(n;C) that are compatible with θ; that is, θ fixes each of the subspaces n⁻; h; and n⁺ which, in our setup, always consist of strictly lower triangular, diagonal, and strictly upper triangular matrices, respectively. The formulas contain determinants such as det(1 + X), where X is in ip, the -1-eigenspace of θ acting on the Lie algebra u. Due to the relatively sparse nature of these matrices, these determinants are often easily calculable, and we illustrate this with many examples.