• Field Testing of Potential New Fungicides for Control of Lettuce Diseases, 1993

      Matheron, M. E.; Matejka, J. C.; Porchas, M.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1994-09)
      Several diseases caused by plant pathogenic fungi can cause economic losses to lettuce growers in Arizona. Leaf drop of lettuce is caused by Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum, while downy and powdery mildew are caused by Bremia lactucae and Erysiphe cichoracearum, respectively. Cool and moist environmental conditions favor development of leaf drop and downy mildew, while warmer and dry weather is conducive for development of powdery mildew. Potential new fungicides were evaluated for control of these diseases during the winter of 1992-93. For leaf drop, two nonregistered materials, Fluazinam and Topsin M, controlled disease at least well as the standard registered fungicides. Fluazinam and Aliette provided equivalent control of downy mildew, while Fluazinam but not Aliene significantly reduced the severity of powdery mildew on lettuce.
    • Fungicides Evaluated for Control of Rhizoctonia Bottom Rot of Lettuce in 1991 Field Trials

      Matheron, M. E.; Leonard, R.; Major, G.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1992-12)
      Bottom rot of lettuce, caused by the soil -borne fungus Rhizoctonia solani, can cause economic losses on early season lettuce harvested in November. First evidence of the disease is the appearance of brown, sunken, necrotic areas on the midribs of leaves touching the soil. Under favorable environmental conditions, the pathogen grows from leaf to leaf inside the head. If the fungus invades the leaves of the marketable head it and all similarly infected heads are left in the field resulting in economic losses. Field trials were established to evaluate the potential level of disease control obtainable by applying Ronilan or Rovral to lettuce beds immediately after thinning. No significant reduction in loss of marketable heads was observed in these trials, although there was a trend toward lower levels of bottom rot when either fungicide was in place.
    • Fungicides Evaluated for Control of Sclerotinia Leaf Drop of Lettuce in 1991 Field Test

      Pier, J. W.; Doerge, T. A.; McCreary, T.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1992-12)
    • Management of Downy and Powdery Mildew on Lettuce: Efficacy of Fungicides in 1996 Field Trial

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-08)
      Downy and powdery mildew are caused by the plant pathogenic fungi Bremia lactucae and Erysiphe cichoracearum, respectively. Cool and moist environmental conditions favor development ofdowny mildew, while warmer and dry weather is conducive for development of powdery mildew. Potential new fungicides were evaluated for management of these diseases in 1996. Both downy and powdery mildew developed in the test plots. All tested materials significantly reduced the severity of downy mildew compared to plants not treated with a fungicide. Compared to nontreated control plants as well as some tested materials and rates, significant reduction of powdery mildew was achieved with Azoxystrobin 80WDG + Latron B-1956, BAS 490 02F, Ciba G /MZ + Mancozeb 75DF, Dithane 75DF + Latron CS-7, Propamocarb 6EC (high rate), R11-7281 2F + Larron CS-7, and Microthiol 80WDG.
    • Management of Sclerotinia Leaf Drop on Lettuce: Efficacy of Fungicides in 1996 Field Trial

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-08)
      Leaf drop of lettuce is caused by the plant pathogenic fungi Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum. Cool and moist environmental conditions favor disease development. Potential new fungicides were evaluated in a field trial for management of this disease in 1996. For plots containing Sclerotinia minor, all compounds and rates tested significantly reduced the number of diseased heads compared to plots not treated with a fungicide. All treatments except Ronilan at the 0.5 lb. a. i./A rate yielded a significantly higher number of marketable heads compared to nontreated plots infested with S. minor. For plots containing S. sclerotiorum, all materials except the Ciba compound at the low and high rates decreased the number of diseased heads and increased the number of marketable heads compared to nontreated plots.
    • Sclerotinia Leaf Drop of Lettuce - Testing New Fungicides and Formulations of Ronilan for Disease Control

      Matheron, M. E.; Matejka, J. C.; Oebker, Norman F.; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-05)
      Leaf drop of lettuce, caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotionunb is a sporadic but potentially destructive disease in Arizona During the 1988-89 lettuce season in western Arizona, different fungicides and formulations of materials were evaluated in the field for disease control. All tested compounds provided significant disease suppression and increased yields, provided that a sufficient rate of fungicide was applied. Ronilan and Rovral, the two fungicides currently registered for use on lettuce for Sclerotinia leaf drop, were the most effective fungicides in this test, performing significantly better than the two experimental materials. The SODF formulation of Ronilan provided significantly better disease control than the SOW formulation of the same compound.
    • Sclerotinia Leaf Drop on Lettuce -- Evaluation of New Fungicides for Disease Control

      Matheson, Michael E.; Matejka, Joseph C.; Oebker, Norman F.; Kingdon, Lorraine B. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1989-05)
      Leaf drop of lettuce, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a sporadic, but destructive, disease in Arizona. Field trials were established during 1987 and 1988 to evaluate potential new fungicides for disease control. Ronilan and Rovral, the two materials currently registered for use on lettuce for Sclerotinia leaf drop, were consistently among the most effective fungicides for disease control. Levels of disease control equivalent to that provided by Rovral and Ronilan were observed with CGA-449, SC-0854 SDS-65311, Bay HWG 1608, and Spotless. These field tests have identified several potential new fungicides for control of leaf drop of lettuce caused by S. sclerotionan.
    • Use of Stylet Oil to Slow the Spread of Lettuce Infectious Yellows Virus

      Nelson, Merritt R.; Matejka, Joseph C.; Brown, Judith K.; Oebker, Norman F.; Kingdon, Lorraine B. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1989-05)
      The use of stylet oil to slow the spread of the whitefly- transmitted vines, lettuce infectious yellows, shows sufficient promise to plan for expanded research efforts. The main positive results were a slower buildup of virus infection and a larger number of marketable heads in the block of lettuce sprayed with oil. Weight (in grams) of individual heads could be correlated with time of infection in that the lowest weights and marketability ratings occurred in plants infected earliest in the season. Whether they were front treated or untreated plots, marketable heads weighed an average of 784 grams; unmarketable heads weighed 491 grams. The key difference is that, on the average, five marketable heads of lettuce were in the oil- treated plots for every three in the untreated plots. A follow-up experiment will be conducted in 1989 to determine if these preliminary positive results indicate that stylet oil treatment may be a practical control method for slowing the spread of L1YV.