• Cultural Alternative for Avoidance of Lettuce Infectious Yellows Virus (LIYV)

      McGrady, John; Rubatzky, Vince; Oebker, Norm; Hartz, Tim; Butler, Marvin; Tilt, Phil; Hagerman, Sherry; Oebker, Norman F.; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1991-05)
    • Downy and Powdery Mildew of Lettuce: Comparison of Chemical Management Tools in 1997

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-10)
      Downy and powdery mildew are caused by the plant pathogenic fungi Bremia lactucae and Erysiphe cichoracearum, respectively. Cool and moist environmental conditions favor development of downy mildew, while warmer and dry weather is conducive for development of powdery mildew. Potential new fungicides were evaluated for management of these diseases in 1997. A very low level of downy mildew occurred during this trial; however, all treatments significantly reduced the number of leaf lesions compared to nontreated lettuce plants. Powdery mildew was quite intense at crop maturity and was significantly lower, compared to nontreated lettuce, on plants treated with Microthiol Special, BAS 490 + Bravo Weather Stik, Quadris, and two additional treatments not usually found to reduce this disease.
    • Effect of Fungicides Applied at Different Rates on Control of Sclerotinia Leaf Drop of Lettuce -- 1990 Field Test

      Matheron, M. E.; Matejka, J. C.; Oebker, Norman F.; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1991-05)
      Leaf drop of lettuce, caused by the plant pathogenic fungi Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and S. minor, is found every year in some lettuce fields in Arizona. When environmental conditions are favorable, disease incidence and resulting crop loss can be significant. During the 1989 -90 lettuce season in western Arizona, different fungicides and rates of materials were evaluated in the field for disease control Ronilan and Rovral, the two fungicides currently registered for use on lettuce for control of Sclerotinia leaf drop, provided significant disease suppression and increased yields at all rates tested. Bravo and Botran did not control the disease.
    • Effect of Sunstainable Versus Conventional Fertilization Practices on Populations of Pythium and Fusarium on Roots of Lettuce in 1990 Field Test

      Matheron, M.; McGrady, J.; Butler, M.; Rethwisch, M.; Matejka, J.; Tilt, P.; Oebker, Norman F.; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1991-05)
      This report focuses upon our efforts to evaluate the effect of sustainable versus conventional fertilization practices on subsequent populations of soil-borne pathogens on lettuce roots. The different fertilization treatments included conventional fertilizer, composted cow manure, and a biological soil conditioner. Near plant maturity, lettuce roots were collected from the field and the populations of Pythium and Fusarium were determined. The lowest population of both of these pathogens was found in the plots fertilized with composted cow manure, while the highest levels of Pythium and Fusarium were detected in the plots treated with conventional fertilizer. Further field studies are planned to confirm these initial findings. Of the two pathogens assayed, Pythium is of greatest concern because of its ability to destroy roots and reduce plant growth and vigor. Species of Fusarium are commonly found in soil and on plant roots and usually do not cause damage to plants unless the plants are under stress.
    • Evaluation of New Fungicides for Management of Downy and Powdery Mildew of Lettuce in 1998

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-02)
      Bremia lactucae and Erysiphe cichoracearum, respectively, cause downy and powdery mildew of lettuce. Cool moist environmental conditions favor the development of downy mildew, whereas warm and dry weather is conducive for powdery mildew. Several potential new fungicides were evaluated for control of these diseases of lettuce in 1998. The final severity of downy mildew in this trial was low. In addition to the standard compounds maneb, Aliette and Trilogy, several fungicides currently in development significantly reduced the severity of downy mildew compared to nontreated plants. These chemistries included Acrobat, RH -7281, an Unknown, Actigard, EF1295, Curzate, Quadris, BAS 500, QST 153, BAS 505 and BAS 490. Untreated lettuce plants were heavily infected with powdery mildew. In addition to the standard materials Microthiol Special and Trilogy, powdery mildew was significantly reduced on plants treated with BAS 490, BAS 505, EF1295, BAS 500 and Quadris. The possible availability of one or more of these chemistries under development for lettuce could help in efforts to develop and maintain a fungicide resistance management program for plant medicines of importance for this crop.
    • Field Evaluation of Head Lettuce Cultivars for Susceptibility to Sclerotinia Leaf Drop in 1997

      Wilcox, Mark; Matheron, Michael; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-10)
      Leaf drop of lettuce is caused by the plant pathogenic fungi Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum. Cool and moist environmental conditions favor disease development. Sixteen diffirent cultivars of head lettuce were evaluated in the field for susceptibility to Sclerotinia leaf drop in plots inoculated with sclerotia of Sclerotinia minor or S. sclerotiorum. Significant differences were detected among the tested cultivars in the amount of lettuce plants killed by Sclerotinia minor. On the other hand, there were no significant differences among tested cultivars in the number of plants destroyed by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
    • Field Evaluation of Potential New Fungicides for Control of Lettuce Downey and Powdery Mildew in 1994 and 1995

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Downy and powdery mildew are caused by the plant pathogenic fungi Bremia lactucae and Erysiphe cichoracearum, respectively. Cool and moist environmental conditions favor development of downy mildew, while warmer and dry weather is conducive for development of powdery mildew. Potential new fungicides were evaluated for control of these diseases during 1994 and 1995. In 1994, downy mildew did not occur in the test plots; however, powdery mildew was severe and was controlled most effectively by Microthiol. In the 1995 study, both downy and powdery mildew developed in the test plots. The highest level of downy mildew control was achieved with three experimental compounds, Fluazinam, Dimethomorph, and BAS-490. The most effective fungicides for control of powdery mildew in 1995 were BAS-490 and Microthiol.
    • Field Evaluation of Potential New Fungicides for Control of Sclerotinia Leaf Drop of Lettuce in 1994 and 1995

      Matheron, Michael E.; Misaghi, Iraj J.; Porchas, Martin; DeCianne, Dominic; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Leaf drop of lettuce is caused by the plant pathogenic fungi Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum. Cool and moist environmental conditions favor disease development. Potential new fungicides were evaluated in field trials for control of this disease in 1994 and 1995. In the 1994 trial, Fluazinam and Topsin M provided significant decrease of disease and significant increase inmarketable yield compared to no treatment in plots infested with Sclerotinia minor or S. sclerotiorum. In 1995, Fluazinam, Topsin M, and two compounds from Ciba significantly reduced disease caused by Sclerotinia minor and increased marketable yield of treated lettuce when compared to nontreated plots.
    • New Fungicides Evaluated for Control of Sclerotinia Leaf Drop of Lettuce in 1997 and 1998

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-02)
      Sclerotinia leaf drop of lettuce is caused by two different species of this fungal pathogen, Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum. Cool and moist environmental conditions favor this disease. Some new fungicides in development were evaluated for control of leaf drop on lettuce during the winter vegetable growing seasons of 1996-97 and 1997-98. Sclerotia of each pathogen were applied to plots after thinning and just before the first of two applications of test compounds. The final severity of leaf drop in these trials was high. Significant reduction in disease or increase in marketable heads compared to nontreated plants was usually achieved by application of the standard compounds Ronilan and Rovral as well as the new fungicides BAS 500 and an "unidentified" material. The future registration and subsequent availability of one or both of these new chemistries for lettuce could provide equivalent disease control to that of the current standard materials with 0.2 to 0.25 lb active ingredient (a.i.) per acre instead of the current 1.0 lb a.i. per acre required with the standard compounds.
    • Sclerotinia Leaf Drop of Lettuce - Screening New Fungicides for Disease Control in 1986

      Matheron, M. E.; Matejka, J. C.; Oebker, Norman F.; Kingdon, Lorraine B. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-05)
      In western Arizona, the incidence and severity of lettuce drop, caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, can be significant during February, March and April. During 1986 a field trial was established to test new fungicides for disease control. Disease severity in the inoculated lettuce planting was significantly reduced by Baycor, Spotless and CGA-449, as well as the registered fungicides Ronilan and Rovral. Further testing of Baycor, Spotless and CQA-449 will be performed next year.
    • Tank Mixing New Insecticide Chemistries with a Pyrethroid Insecticide for Control of Lepidopterous Pests in Head Lettuce, 1997

      Kerns, David L.; Tellez, Tony; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-02)
      Confirm, Success and Proclaim were evaluated for lepidopterous insect control in lettuce with and without the addition of Mustang 1.5EW. Success and Proclaim used alone were highly efficacious toward cabbage looper and Heliothinae and did not appear to benefit greatly from the addition of Mustang. However, Confirm's activity towards Heliothinae was significantly improved by the addition of Mustang. Additionally, on large framed plants where coverage is difficult, Confirm benefitted from the addition of a pyrethroid for control of loopers.