• Commercial Evaluation of Confirm for Control of Lepidopterous Pests of Lettuce using Various Applications Techniques

      Kerns, David L.; Tellez, Tony; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-10)
      Confirm was evaluated in head lettuce for control of lepidopterous pests when applied by air, and when applied by ground at 4, 8 and 12 mph. By air Confirm may not provide commercially acceptable control when used alone. Confirm must be ingested to exhibit activity and aerial applications may not provide adequate spray coverage. When used by ground, applicators should avoid exceeding 8 mph, again because good spray coverage may be compromised.
    • Commercial Evaluation of Proclaim for Control of Lepidopterous Pests of Lettuce

      Tellez, Tony; Kerns, David L.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-10)
      Proclaim 1.6 was evaluated in head lettuce in side-by-side large plot aerial and ground application demonstrations compared to commercial standard treatments. Proclaim consistently provided excellent control of beet armyworm and cabbage looper larvae. Worm control by Proclaim was equivalent to, or better than the commercial standards.
    • Comparison of Alternative Management Approaches for Lepidopterous Larvae in Fall Lettuce

      Palumbo, John; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-02)
      For the second year, a large block experiment was conducted at the Yuma Ag Center to compare the field performance of three lettuce management programs for control of lepidopterous larvae. Conventional, experimental and biorational insecticides were sprayed to control beet armyworm, cabbage looper and Heliothis species throughout the growing season. Differences in populations of total larvae among the four treatments, relative to insecticide treatments and timing of application were observed throughout the season. In general, the standard and experimental treatments provided the most consistent control of lepidopterous larvae following each application. Harvest data showed that the spray regimes had a significant influence of head lettuce yield or quality. Maturity and quality were significantly reduced in the untreated control. An economic analysis shows that net returns varied widely among the management programs at different market prices. In conclusion, this study provides preliminary data to support the need for more development of experimental and biorational insecticide products as alternatives to conventional management programs in desert lettuce production.
    • Efficacy and Temporal Mortality of Selective Insecticides on Beet Armyworm Larvae in Lettuce

      Palumbo, J. C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
    • Efficacy of Biorational Insecticides to Beet Armyworm and Cabbage Looper on Iceberg Lettuce

      Kerns, David L.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Four tests were conducted evaluating biorational insecticides for control of beet armyworm (BAW) and cabbage looper (CL) on iceberg lettuce. Treatment means for BAW were difficult to separate due to low population densities. The new formulation of Javelin appeared to be the most efficacious Bt overall. However, when Bts were compared on a equal cost/A basis, there were no significant derences among products for CL control. All Bts were comparable to Lannate for CL control. The neem oil extract Align, provided adequate BAW and CL control, and its efficacy at low rates seemed to be slightly enhanced by the addition of Sunspray Ultrafine Oil. Larvin at lower than label recommended rates gave good BAW and CL control as did Javelin. The tank-mix of these two products did not enhance worm control over that of the products used alone. Mustang gave good control of CL but appeared to be slightly weak against BAW.
    • Efficacy of Insecticides to Green Peach Aphid on Iceberg Lettuce

      Kerns, David L.; Palumbo, John C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Three tests were conducted evaluating foliar and soil applied aphicides for efficacy to green peach aphid infesting iceberg lettuce. Aphid population densites were low in all three studies and differences among treatments were difficult to discern. At low aphid populations we could not detect whether or not soil applications of Admire enhanced or inhibited the activity of subsequent foliar applications of other aphicides. Although when used alone, some products did offer statistically significant aphid control. However, in a commercial setting these differences would probably not be significant. At low aphid populations none of the pyrethroid tank mixes evaluated gave significantly better aphid control than the products used alone. All of the experimental aphicides evaluated appeared to have some degree of efficacy to green peach aphid.
    • Efficacy of Pyrethroid Insecticides for Cabbage Looper Control in Head Lettuce, 1997

      Kerns, David L.; Tellez, Tony; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-02)
      Mustang 1.5EW, Ammo 2.5EC, Pounce 3,2EC, Scout X-TRA, and three formulations of Karate were compared for efficacy to cabbage loopers infesting head lettuce in Yuma, AZ Karate and Pounce provided the most consistent cabbage looper control followed by Mustang and Scout X-TRA. Ammo appeared slightly inferior to the other pyrethroids tested. There did not appear to be any obvious differences in the efficacy of the three Karate formulations.
    • Evaluation of Admire Soil Treatments on Colonization of Green Peach Aphid and Marketability of Lettuce

      Palumbo, John; Kerns, David; Hannan, Todd; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Admire (imidacloprid), applied as a soil treatment, protected lettuce plants from developing infestations of green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), for 60-100 d after planting based on two small plot and two commercial field trials. Admire applied 7.6 cm sub-seed furrow provided longer and more consistent protection from green peach aphid than treatments applied to the soil surface, as a side-dress, or 15.2 cm sub-seed furrow. Surface band applications of Admire provided inconsistent control probably because of inadequate hydrological incorporation into the soil. In small plot trials, effective control of aphids by Admire applied 7.6 cm sub seed furrow resulted in greater than 90.0% marketable heads while the untreated plots contained 20.0% marketable heads. When used in a commercial setting, Admire applied 7.6 cm sub-seed furrow on leaf lettuce prevented aphid colonization (<3 aphids per plant) for approximately 100 d after planting, while the untreated and commercial standard treated areas contained 30.7 and 26.8 aphids per plant respectively at 100 d after planting. In addition, marketability of lettuce was greater in Admire treated plots. As a sub-seed furrow treatment, Admire provides a more suitable approach to aphid control than is currently available with foliar insecticides.
    • Evaluation of Biological Insecticides for Control of Beet Armyworm in Lettuce

      Palumbo, John C.; Butler, Marvin D.; Mullis, Clayton H. Jr.; Oebker, Norman F.; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1991-05)
      A field study was conducted at Yuma in 1990 to examine the efficacy of several biological insecticide formulations on beet armyworm in seedling lettuce. After a single application at thinning, none of the insecticides adequately reduced larval populations below damaging levels. Reductions in plant stand by larvalfeeding were significantly lower in plots treated with Lannate, Javelin, Biobit and Dipel. Lettuce seedling densities were reduced greaterthan 80% in untreated plots.
    • Evaluation of Conventional and Experimental Insecticides for Control of Western Flower Thrips in Head Lettuce

      Palumbo, John; Mullis, Clayton Jr.; Reyes, Francisco; Amaya, Andreas; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-10)
      Studies were conducted in small plot field trials to evaluate the efficacy of several experimental and conventional insecticide chemistries against western flower thrips in head lettuce. Results from two trials using new experimental compounds showed that several insecticides have potential for management of thrips populations. All of the products appear to be good candidates for thrips control and had efficacy against adults and nymphs. Success and Fipronil consistently provided comparable control to the standard Lannate/Ammo. In the trial evaluating conventional compounds, Orthene/Mustang and Lannate/Ammo combinations provided the best control of both adult and nymphs. Plant size and temperature may be important factors contributing to the efficacy of these products.
    • Evaluation of Foliar Insecticide Approaches for Aphid Management in Head Lettuce

      Palumbo, John; Mullis, Clayton Jr.; Reyes, Francisco; Amaya, Andreas; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-10)
      Provado insecticide (imidacloprid) was compared to Admire and other standard insecticides for management of aphids in head lettuce in Yuma 1995 and 1996. Foliar applications of Provado appear to provide an alternative method of controlling aphids on lettuce comparable to prophylactic applications of Admire. The prevention of aphid colonization in lettuce heads with Provado may depend greatly on the timing and frequency of applications before harvest occurs. These studies and other studies on spinach suggest that more than one application of Provado will be necessary to adequately suppress aphid contamination in heads. The label suggests that applications be timed 5-7 apart. Our data tends to support this recommendation. Furthermore, timing applications should be based on days to harvest, level of aphid colonization and duration of aphid migration.
    • Management of Lepidopterous Larvae Under Experimental, Biorational and Conventional Control Programs in Lettuce

      Palumbo, John C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-10)
      A large block experiment was conducted at the Yuma Ag Center to compare the field performance of three lettuce management programs for control of lepidopterous larvae. Conventional, experimental and biorational insecticides were sprayed to control beet armyworm, cabbage looper and Heliothis species throughout the growing season. Differences in populations of total larvae among the four treatments, relative to insecticide treatments and timing of application were observed throughout the season. In general, the standard and experimental treatments provided the most consistent control of lepidopterous larvae following each application. Harvest data showed that the spray regimes had a significant influence of head lettuce yield or quality. Maturity and quality were significantly reduced in the untreated control. An economic analysis shows that net returns varied widely among the management programs at different market prices. In conclusion, this study provides preliminary data to support the need for more development of experimental and biorational insecticide products as alternatives to conventional management programs in desert lettuce production.
    • Mating Disruption of Beet Armyworm in Lettuce by Synthetic Pheromone

      Kerns, David L.; Tellez, Tony; Nigh, Jeff; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-10)
      The beet armyworm pheromone dispenser, Yotoh-con-S, was evaluated for its ability to inhibit mate location and subsequent population growth of beet armyworm in head lettuce. Pheromone dispensers were very effective in preventing male beet armyworm moths from locating point pheromone sources. Pheromone dispensers also appeared to result in an approximately 75 % reduction in beet armyworm larvae relative to untreated fields.
    • Temporal and Diagnostic Mortality of Beet Armyworm Larvae to Selective Insecticides in Head Lettuce

      Palumbo, John C.; Kerns, David L.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-10)
      Several new insecticide chemistries were evaluated and compared with standard chemistries for temporal and diagnostic mortality of beet armyworm in lettuce. Field and lab bioassays of small and large armyworm mortality were conducted at pre- thinning thinning postthinning and harvest stages of lettuce. Results from both the field and laboratory indicated similar trends for the temporal activity of the products. The compounds with translaminar activity (Alert, Success, and Proclaim) appear to be have the most rapid "knockdown activity" with 100% mortality consistently occurring by 1-2 DAT. Because of their rapid activity, a large proportion of larvae are found dead on the plants. The products that need to be ingested to cause larval mortality (Larvin, Confirm, Neemix, Crymax, Cryolite, MP 062) generally varied significantly in temporal mortality and in efficacy against larvae. Unlike the translaminar products, a large proportion of larvae on were often found missing from treated plants The results of this study provide basic guidelines concerning the activity and assessment of the performance of these materials in the field PCAs and growers will ultimately be able to develop specific use patterns for these materials within their individual lettuce pest management programs.
    • Temporal and Diagnostic Mortality of Cabbage Looper Larvae to Selective Insecticides in Head Lettuce

      Palumbo, John C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-10)
      Several new insecticide chemistries were evaluated and compared with standard chemistries for temporal and diagnostic mortality of cabbage looper in lettuce. Three field bioassays of small and large larval mortality were conducted at pre-thinning, thinning, and postthinning, stages of lettuce. The compounds with translaminar activity (Alert, Success, and Proclaim) appear to be have the most rapid "knockdown activity" with 100% mortality consistently occurring by 1 -2 DAT. Because of their rapid activity, a large proportion of larvae are found dead on the plants. The products that need to be ingested to cause larval mortality (Larvin Confirm, Neemix, Crymax, Cryolite, MP 062) generally varied significantly in temporal mortality and in efficacy against larvae. Unlike the translaminar products, a large proportion of larvae on were often found missing from treated plants. The results of this study provide basic guidelines concerning the activity and assessment of the performance of these materials in the field PCAs and growers will ultimately be able to develop specific use patterns for these materials within their individual lettuce pest management programs.
    • Use of Non Toxic Materials for Whitefly Control and Growth Enhancement in Crisphead Lettuce

      Molin, W. T.; Oebker, N. F.; Brown, J. K.; Palumbo, J. C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Field studies were conducted in Yuma and Tucson in 1993 to determine the effect of several non toxic substances purported to enhance growth and yield of lettuce, and to determine whether these treatments have an effect on whitefly populations. Five applications of the treatments were made beginning four weeks after planting and continuing at weekly intervals. Results indicated that there may be some positive effects of foliar applied methanol and nutrient (nitrogen/iron) treatments, as well as, from the use of Capture insecticide.