• Dacthal® Herbicide Rate Comparison for Preemergence Weed Control in Onions

      Umeda, K.; Fredman, C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      DCPA (Dacthal®) herbicide was applied preemergence (PE) to the soil surface after onion planting and no crop injury was observed for rates of 5.3, 7.5, and 10.5 lb. a.i. /A at one of two locations. Dacthal® gave good control of London rocket and cheeseweed (90 -94 %) at one location and marginal control at the second location (79 -85 %). Dacthal® did not exhibit a rate response to control the two weeds common to both locations. The lower rate of Dacthal® did not differ in efficacy compared to higher rates to completely control lambsquarters and nettleleaf goosefoot. All rates of Dacthal® marginally controlled yellow sweetclover and other mustard weeds present. Dacthal® provided adequate weed control to allow onion stand establishment.
    • Early Postemergence Herbicide Weed Control in Onions

      Umeda, K.; Fredman, C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Oxyfluorfen (Goal®) herbicide at 0.25 lb. ai./A and bromoxynil (Buctril®) at 0.38 lb.a.i. /A applied early postemergence (POST) to onions at the 1- to 2-leaf stage of growth gave near complete control ( >98 %) of lambsquarters, knotweed, cheeseweed, London rocket, and good control ( -90 %) of shepherd's purse. Buctril® did not control annual bluegrass and Goal® only slightly reduced some of the heavy population. Both herbicides caused marginally unacceptable onion injury at 17-20 %. Buctril® plus pendimethalin (Prowl®) tank-mix combination applied POST also gave very good broadleaaved weed control but annual bluegrass was reduced only 50 %. Similar onion injury was observed for the combination treatment as Buctril® alone. Buctril® caused onion injury when it was applied during cloudy weather. Buctril® and Goal® were effective for broadspectrum broadleaved weed control but onions were sensitive when treated before reaching the full 2-leaf stage of growth. Cloudy weather during applications also intensified the onion injury by Buctril® treatments.
    • Evaluation of Nortron® Herbicide for Preemergence Weed Control in Onions

      Umeda, K.; Gal, G.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-10)
      An exploratory field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Nortron® (ethofumesate) herbicide for potential use in an onion weed control program. A rate range of 1.0 to 2.5 lb AI/A applied preemergence (PREE) demonstrated good safety on onions and no injury or crop stand reduction was observed. Sowthistle was the most numerous weed present and Nortron did not reduce it relative to the untreated check. Dacthal® (DCPA) significantly reduced the number of sowthistle relative to the untreated and to Nortron treatments. Onion height was reduced by Dacthal about 40 %.
    • Evaluation of Preemergence Herbicides for Onion Weed Control

      Umeda, K.; Gal, G.; Strickland, B.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-02)
      At three test sites, ethofumesate (Nortron®) at 1.0 and 2.0 lb AI /A was safe on onions. Nortron appeared to provide marginal control of light to moderate weed infestations of London rocket (Sisymbrium irio) at two sites. Pendimethalin (Prowl®) at 0.50 and 0.75 lb Al/A was safe on onions at two sites with furrow irrigation. At three sites with sprinkler irrigation, Prowl treatments caused as high as 62 to 88% stand reduction when sprinklers were used to incorporate the herbicide. Bensulide (Prefar0) injured onions at early rating dates and height measurements indicated that the plants were shortened relative to the untreated check. End of the season visual observations showed that onions had grown out of the initial injury and the crop did not appear to be damaged. Prefar combined with Prowl or Nortron was more injurious to onions with sprinkler irrigation than with furrow irrigated incorporation. Prefar gave marginal weed control in the tests under conditions with low weed infestations. Lactofen (Cobra®) was injurious to onions at all five test sites and caused significant crop stand reduction. Combination treatments of Prowl with DCPA (Dacthal®) or Prefar were damaging to onions under sprinklers but injury was minimal with furrow irrigations. Metolachlor (Dual®) and dimethenamid (Frontier®) caused minimal injury and no stand reduction of onions under sprinklers but with furrow irrigation, the stand was reduced and height reduction was substantial. The series of field tests demonstrated that herbicide performance was significantly influenced by irrigation practices. Prowl herbicide was extremely injurious and caused substantial crop stand reduction with sprinkler irrigation. Dual and Frontier exhibited less injury on onions under sprinklers than with furrow irrigation. Cobra at 0.25 lb AI /A was damaging to onions regardless of irrigation practice.
    • Postemergence Weed Control in Onions

      Umeda, K.; Fredman, C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Oxyfluorfen (Goal®) herbicide at 0.125 to 0.25 lb. a.i./A applied postemergence (POST) to onions at the 3-leaf stage of growth effectively controlled London rocket, yellow sweetclover, and prostrate pigweed with marginal injury to onions. Earlier POST applications on 1- and 2-leaf onions caused injury and some stand reduction. Bromoxynil (Buctril®) herbicide at 0.25 lb. a.i./A applied early POST gave generally good weed control but did not adequately control sweetclover. Buctril® applied in clear weather did not injure 1-leaf onions but caused severe injury on 2- and 3-leaf onions when applied during cloudy weather conditions. Buctril® plus pendimethalin (Prowl®) tank-mix combination applied POST provided good control of London rocket, sweetclover, and prostrate pigweed; however, onion injury was severe due to applying Buctril® in cloudy weather. Buctril® and Goal® effectively controlled weeds present in the onions but timing of POST applications was critical with respect to onion size and weather conditions to minimize injury.
    • Preemergence Herbicide Combinations for Onion Weed Control Study

      Umeda, K.; Gal, G.; Strickland, B.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-02)
      DCPA (Dacthal®) at 9.0 lb AI /A, the commercial standard herbicide, slightly reduced the number of plants and shortened the plant height compared to the untreated check. Preemergence (PREE) herbicide treatments that caused injury as height reduction similar to Dacthal included pendimethalin (Prowl®), propachlor (Ramrod®), metolachlor (Dual®), dimethenamid (Frontier®), ethofumesate (Nortron®), and benefin (Balan®). Visual observations did not indicate significant stand reduction or crop injury compared to plant counts. Treatments that caused minimal visible crop injury (<10 %) were Ramrod, Balan and lower rates of Frontier and Nortron. Moderate to acceptable injury (15 %) was observed on onions treated by Prowl, Dual, Frontier, and Nortron. Treatments that significantly reduced crop stand were Prefar at 6.0 lb AI /A, lactofen (Cobra®), thiazopyr (Visor®), and some combinations of the three herbicides. Combination treatments that caused marginally acceptable injury included Prowl plus Dual, Nortron plus Prowl, Prefar plus Nortron, Nortron plus Frontier, Ramrod plus Frontier, Ramrod plus Nortron, and Ramrod plus Balan. Early weed control ratings showed that Prowl at 0.5 and 0.75 lb Al/A, Nortron, Cobra, Visor applied alone gave acceptable control (>85 %) of London rocket (Sisvmbrium irio), sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus), and sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis). Prowl at 0.75 lb AI/A and Cobra gave season -long control of all weeds. Early weed control ratings of combination herbicide treatments demonstrated that Prowl or Nortron combined with other herbicides gave acceptable weed control. Prowl at 0.50 lb AI /A plus Ramrod, Nortron, or Dual at the lower rates slightly improved weed control compared to each of the herbicides applied alone.