• 1987 Broccoli Variety Trials

      Butler, M. D.; Oebker, N. F.; Davis, J. A.; Oebker, Norman F.; Kingdon, Lorraine B. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1988-05)
    • 1987 Cauliflower Variety Trials

      Butler, M. D.; Oebker, N. F.; Davis, J. A.; Oebker, Norman F.; Kingdon, Lorraine B. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1988-05)
    • 1991 Virus Survey of Cantaloupe in Yuma

      Butler, Marvin; Brooks, Dave; Watson, Mike; Oebker, Norman F.; University of Arizona; Pasquinelli Produce (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1992-12)
    • 2001 Yield Response of Processing Onions in the Palo Verde Valley Treated with AuxiGro® WP

      Rethwisch, Michael D.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-08)
      Processing onions were treated with AuxiGro in spring 2001. Applications were applied at four and 7.5 weeks prior to harvest. A single application of 4 oz. product/acre at either four or 7.5 weeks prior to harvest increased yield by approximately 0.7 tons/acre. Two applications resulted in a 1.3 tons/acre yield increase. Differences noted were not statistically different, but the two application treatment provided an increased net return of approximately $95/acre.
    • An Action Threshold for Management of Sweet Potato Whitefly in Cantaloupe

      Palumbo, J. C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      A range of action thresholds for the control of sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius were evaluated in field experiments with high population density of B. tabaci. Action thresholds for whitefly adults, based on seasonal whitefly averages that could result in 5% and 15 % dollar losses, of 3 and 10 adults per leaf, respectively, were tested. All thresholds were compared to weekly insecticide treatments and an untreated check The resulting best threshold treatment was 3 adults per leaf area which provided a 170% increase in net return over the untreated check. The 3 adult per leaf threshold resulted in 6 applications of insecticide, compared with 10 applications used in the weekly regime.
    • Action Thresholds for Aphid Management with Reduced-Risk and Conventional Insecticides in Desert Head Lettuce

      Palumbo, John; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2006-09)
      Action thresholds, based on the percentage of plants infested, for the aphid pest complex found in head lettuce were evaluated in October, November and December plantings in 2005 and 2006 at the Yuma Agricultural Center. Action thresholds were also evaluated for their compatibility with newly developed reduced-risk and conventional insecticides. Although all five common aphid species were present in both years of the study, foxglove aphids provided most of the pest pressure. Compared with the SAC threshold treatment (sprayed-at colonization; essentially sprayed weekly until new aphid colonies were not found), action thresholds of 10% and 30% plants infested with 5 or more aphids resulted in fewer insecticide applications, while maintaining varying levels of head contamination at harvest. Despite variable pest pressure between years and planting dates, the threshold based on 10% infested plants performed as well as the SAC but with half as many sprays and no significant head contamination. However, significant head contamination was experienced when the 10% action threshold was used exclusively with reduced-risk insecticides.
    • Activity of Actigard® on Development of Phytophthora Root and Crown Rot on Pepper Plants

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-08)
      Phytophthora blight of peppers (Capsicum annuum), caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici, occurs in most regions where this crop is grown. The root and crown rot phase of the disease develops on plants in areas of the field where soil remains saturated with water after an irrigation or rainfall. Subsequent periods of soil saturation encourage further disease development. Actigard (acibenzolar-S-methyl), is a chemical activator of plant disease resistance, has no known direct antifungal effects and is thought to mimic salicylic acid in the signal transduction pathway that leads to systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Foliar applications of Actigard were evaluated for suppression of root and crown rot on pepper plants growing in the greenhouse in pots and inoculated with Phytophthora capsici or grown in soil naturally infested with the pathogen. Inhibition of stem cankers on pepper cultivars Bell Tower and AZ9 after two to four treatments with Actigard was significantly greater than on plants receiving a single treatment of the chemical. Inhibition of stem canker elongation on Bell Tower or AZ9 peppers ranged from 93.2 to 97.2% and 87.4 to 92.4% when plants were inoculated with P. capsici at 1 or 5 weeks, respectively, after the fourth application of Actigard. Survival of chile pepper plants in field soil naturally infested with P. capsici was significantly increased by three foliar applications of Actigard compared to nontreated plants in all three trials when pots were watered daily and in two of three trials when pots were flooded for 48 hr every 2 weeks. When soil was flooded every 2 weeks, establishing conditions highly favorable for disease development, plants treated once with Ridomil Gold survived significantly longer than those treated with Actigard. On the other hand, when water was provided daily without periodic flooding, establishing conditions less favorable for disease development, there was no significant difference in plant survival between the two chemicals in two of three trials. Growth of shoots on chile pepper plants treated with Actigard, watered daily and grown in soil containing P. capsici generally was greater than nontreated plants. Pepper plants subjected to periodic saturated soil conditions and receiving three foliar applications of Actigard plus a soil treatment of Ridomil Gold survived significantly longer and produced a greater amount of shoot growth than plants treated with either chemical alone. This work suggests that Actigard could be an important management tool for Phytophthora root and crown rot on pepper plants.
    • Admire® Aphid Control in Spring Cabbage

      Umeda, Kai; Fredman, Chris; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-08)
      Imidacloprid (Admire®) was applied at planting time in anticipation of providing aphid control in cabbage for spring harvest. In three commercially treated cabbage fields, Admire reduced the number of cabbage (Brevicoryne brassicae) and green peach aphids (Myzus persicae). Two rates of Admire, 10 and 20 oz/A appeared to be similar in performance for efficacy against aphids. Depth of placement of Admire in the soil below the seed appears to have some influence on the efficacy and consistency of performance. Much fewer aphids and greater consistency was observed when Admire was placed at 1-inch depth below the seed compared to 3- to 4-inches below the seed.
    • Admire® Insecticide Use and Influence on Cantaloupe Growth

      Umeda, K.; Fredman, C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Cantaloupe growth was influenced by using imidacloprid (Admire®) insecticide to control, suppress, or reduce whiteflies. The growth rate of cantaloupe was evaluated at regular intervals after crop emergence and a rate response was observed with greater growth with respect to increase in Admire® rate. Following at planting time applications, at 3 and 4 weeks after treatment (WAT) cantaloupe plants had more foliar growth and a greater number of leaves with increasing Admire® rate. At 5 to 8 WAT, cantaloupe vines exhibited greater growth with increasing rates of Admire®.
    • Air-Assisted Electrostatic Application of Pyrethrois and Endosulfan Mixtures for Sweetpotato Whitefly Control and Spray Deposition in Cauliflower

      Palumbo, John; Coates, Wayne; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-08)
      Pyrethroid and endosulfan mixtures applied at full and reduced rates with three application methods (air-assisted electrostatic, air-assisted hydraulic, and standard hydraulic sprayers) were evaluated in field studies in 1992 and 1993 for control of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci-strain B (Genn.), also known as silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring, and spray deposition on caulker, Brassica oleracea L. Based on adult suppression, improved control of whiteflies was achieved with full and reduced rates of the air-assisted electrostatic sprayer following two applications in 1992, but percent reduction of adults did not differ significantly among the application methods when full rates of insecticide were applied in 1993. Control based on immature colonization indicated that the air-assisted electrostatic sprayer was the only spray method to significantly reduce nymph densities when compared with the control in 1992, but differences in numbers of eggs, nymphs and eclosed pupal cases varied among application methods and rates of active ingredient in 1993. Comparisons of cauliflower harvest dates indicated that the air -assisted electrostatic sprayer did not provide significantly better control than the other application methods when used at similar rates. Spray deposition with the air-assisted electrostatic application technique was variable throughout these studies with no clear trends being observed. Our results suggest the air-assisted electrostatic sprayer may offer a means to control sweetpotato whitefly with a 50% reduction in insecticide usage.
    • Alternative IPM Programs for Management of Lepidopterous Larvae in Fall Lettuce

      Palumbo, John; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      For a third year, a large block experiment was conducted at the Yuma Ag Center to compare the field performance of several lettuce IPM programs for control of lepidopterous larvae. Conventional, Reduced -risk , Bio-based and Modified IPM spray regimes were applied to control beet armyworm, cabbage looper and Heliothis species throughout the fall growing season. Differences in populations of total larvae among the treatments, relative to insecticide treatments and timing of application were observed at various times during the season. In general, the Conventional, Reduced -risk and Modified IPM approaches provided the most consistent control of lepidopterous larvae following each application. Harvest data showed that the spray regimes had a significant influence of head lettuce yield or quality. Maturity and quality were significantly reduced in the untreated control. An economic analysis shows that net returns varied widely among the management programs at different market prices. In conclusion, this study provides a strong data base to support the need for the development of experimental and biorational insecticide products as alternatives to conventional management programs in desert lettuce production. In addition, it demonstrates the dependance of IPM programs on a broad range of plant protection chemicals and control tactics.
    • An Assessment of Simulated Cooling Tower Drift on Cantaloupe and Cotton

      Hofmann, W. C.; Bartels, P. G.; Karpiscak, M. M.; Else, P. T.; Oebker, Norman F.; Kingdon, Lorraine B. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-04)
      The impact of foliar salt deposition, similar to that which is predicted to occur in the vicinity of the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, was investigated on cantaloupe and cotton. Simulated salt drift was applied throughout the growing season. There was an increase in the amount of lead found in the fruit harvested from the highest treatment level as compared to the untreated plants. No other observable salt-induced responses were observed in the cantaloupe. A trend toward reduced yields was observed in the cotton plots receiving the salt treatments.
    • Analyses of Virus Disease Management Programs

      Nelson, Merritt; Stowell, Larry J.; Orum, Tom; Oebker, Norman F.; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-05)
    • Aphicide Trial on Cabbage

      Butler, M. D.; Hannon, T. A.; Howell, D. R.; Oebker, Norman F.; Kingdon, Lorraine B. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1988-05)
    • Aphid Control in Broccoli

      Umeda, K.; Gal, G.; Murrieta, J.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-02)
      In a small plot field test, imidacloprid (Provado®), oxydemeton- methyl (Metasystox-R®), RH -7988 (Aphisttar®, Rohm and Haas), pirimicarb (Pirimor®), methamidaphos (Monitor®), and endosulfan were effective in significantly reducing the number of aphids in broccoli within 4 days of treatment (DAT). At 14 DAT, Provado, Metasystox-R, and Monitor continued to exhibit a significant reduction of aphids relative to the untreated check Pymetrozine (CGA- 215944, Novartis) at 0.022 lb AI/A did not effectively reduce aphids in this test.
    • Aphid Control in Cabbage Study

      Umeda, K.; MacNeil, D.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      Aphistar provided the quickest reduction of the aphids after one application and continued residual control for up to 14 DAT-2. Following a second application and reduction of aphids, Pirimor, Provado, Fulfill, Actara, and Metasystox-R provided a varied degree of residual control of aphids between 5 and 14 DAT-2. A comparison of Fulfill rates indicated that the two rates were equally effective at 5 DAT-2 but the lower rate did not offer as long residual control compared to the higher rate. Endosulfan was moderately effective and did not provide acceptable control after 1 week.
    • Aphid Control in Spinach

      Umeda, K.; Gal, G.; Murrieta, J.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-02)
      Several newly introduced insecticides that have potential for use in vegetable crops for aphid control were evaluated and demonstrated very good efficacy against green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). Field testing in spinach showed that CGA-293343 (Novartis) at the two rates tested significantly reduced the number of aphids relative to the untreated check. CGA-215944 (pymetrozine -Novartis) effectively reduced the number of aphids after two applications. Aphistar (RH- 7988 - Rohm and Haas) demonstrated the greatest reduction in the number of aphids per plant after each application. Provado (imidacloprid) and Thiodan (endosulfan) were applied as commercially available standard treatments and effectively reduced the number of aphids relative to the untreated check. Pirimor (pirimicarb) numerically reduced the number of aphids but was not significantly different relative to the untreated check.
    • Application and Timing of Insecticides for Aphid Management in Head Lettuce

      Palumbo, John; Mullis, Clayton Jr.; Reyez, Francisco; Amaya, Andreas; Ledesma, Luis; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      The timing and application methods of new insecticide chemistries for aphid control were compared to imidacloprid in several studies in 1998 and 1999. Foliar applications of Fulllfill, Aphistar, Actara and Acetamiprid appear to provide an alternative method of controlling aphids on lettuce comparable to prophylactic applications of Admire. Timing applications as aphids began to colonize was critical for preventing head contamination at harvest. In addition, at planting and side dress soil applications of Platinum provided aphid control comparable to Admire. Residual activity of the new foliar alternatives appeared to differ depending on spray timing relative to aphid density and plant stage. These studies suggest that more than one application of the foliar products will be necessary to adequately suppress aphid contamination in heads. Evaluations of thiamethoxam suggest that it is more mobile in the soil than Admire and may be a candidate for side dress applications for aphid management.
    • Arizona Crop Information Site

      Jones, Jennifer S.; Palumbo, John C.; Ellsworth, Peter C.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-09)
      The Arizona Crop Information Site (ACIS) http://cals.arizona.edu/crops was launched by the University of Arizona in 2001. This site provides a one-stop resource for those seeking information on Arizona crop protection and production information. The site is the result of input and cooperation across Arizona’s agricultural community. The amount of information on the site continues to grow as does the site’s importance, usefulness and number of visitors.
    • Arizona Potato Variety Trials, 1961-1964

      Oebker, N. F.; Bessey, P. M. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1965-08)
      In potato variety trials in Central Arizona, Kennebec and Merrimack performed the best as potatoes for chipping. Red varieties Viking, LaRouge, and Red LaSoda yielded about the same as Red Pontiac, the standard for the area; however, Viking had much better appearance and uniformity than the other three reds.