• Action Thresholds for Aphid Management with Reduced-Risk and Conventional Insecticides in Desert Head Lettuce

      Palumbo, John; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2006-09)
      Action thresholds, based on the percentage of plants infested, for the aphid pest complex found in head lettuce were evaluated in October, November and December plantings in 2005 and 2006 at the Yuma Agricultural Center. Action thresholds were also evaluated for their compatibility with newly developed reduced-risk and conventional insecticides. Although all five common aphid species were present in both years of the study, foxglove aphids provided most of the pest pressure. Compared with the SAC threshold treatment (sprayed-at colonization; essentially sprayed weekly until new aphid colonies were not found), action thresholds of 10% and 30% plants infested with 5 or more aphids resulted in fewer insecticide applications, while maintaining varying levels of head contamination at harvest. Despite variable pest pressure between years and planting dates, the threshold based on 10% infested plants performed as well as the SAC but with half as many sprays and no significant head contamination. However, significant head contamination was experienced when the 10% action threshold was used exclusively with reduced-risk insecticides.
    • Insect Crop Losses and Insecticide Usage for Cantaloupes and Watermelons in Central Arizona: 2004 – 2006

      Palumbo, John; Fournier, Al; Ellsworth, Peter; Nolte, Kurt; Clay, Pat; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2006-09)
      Impact assessment is central to the evolution and evaluation of our IPM programs. Quantifiable metrics on insecticide use patterns, costs, targets, and frequency, crop losses due to all stressors of yield and quality, and other real world economic data (e.g., crop value) are our most objective tools for assessing change in our systems. We recently initiated a project to measure the impact of insect losses and insecticide uses in cantaloupes and watermelons grown in Yuma, AZ and the Bard-Winterhaven area of Imperial County, CA. The data generated in this report is useful for responding to pesticide information requests generated by EPA, and can provide a basis for regulatory processes such as Section 18 or 24c requests, as well as for evaluating the impact of our extension programs on risk reduction to growers. This information also confirms the value of PCAs to the melon industry by showing the importance of cost-effective management of insect pests in desert production.
    • Insect Crop Losses and Insecticide Usage for Head Lettuce in Arizona: 2004 – 2006

      Palumbo, John; Fournier, Al; Ellsworth, Peter; Nolte, Kurt; Clay, Pat; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2006-09)
      Impact assessment is central to the evolution and evaluation of our IPM programs. Quantifiable metrics on insecticide use patterns, costs, targets, and frequency, crop losses due to all stressors of yield and quality, and other real world economic data (e.g., crop value) are our most objective tools for assessing change in our systems. We recently initiated a project to measure the impact of insect losses and insecticide uses in head lettuce grown in Yuma, AZ and the Bard-Winterhaven area of Imperial County, CA. The data generated in this report is useful for responding to pesticide information requests generated by EPA, and can provide a basis for regulatory processes such as Section 18 or 24c requests, as well as for evaluating the impact of our extension programs on risk reduction to growers. This information also confirms the value of PCAs to the lettuce industry by showing the importance of cost-effective management of insect pests in desert lettuce production.
    • Insect Crop Losses and Insecticide Usage for Spring Melons in Southwestern Arizona: 2004 – 2006

      Palumbo, John; Fournier, Al; Ellsworth, Peter; Nolte, Kurt; Clay, Pat; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2006-09)
      Impact assessment is central to the evolution and evaluation of our IPM programs. Quantifiable metrics on insecticide use patterns, costs, targets, and frequency, crop losses due to all stressors of yield and quality, and other real world economic data (e.g., crop value) are our most objective tools for assessing change in our systems. We recently initiated a project to measure the impact of insect losses and insecticide uses in cantaloupes and watermelons grown in Yuma, AZ and the Bard–Winterhaven area of Imperial County, CA. The data generated in this report is useful for responding to pesticide information requests generated by EPA, and can provide a basis for regulatory processes such as Section 18 or 24c requests, as well as for evaluating the impact of our extension programs on risk reduction to growers. This information also confirms the value of PCAs to the melon industry by showing the importance of cost-effective management of insect pests in desert production.