• Chemical Freeze Protection of Citrus 1987/1988

      Butler, M.; Brown, P.; Fallahi, E.; Butler, Marvin (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1988-12)
      Research has shown that the presence of ice-nucleation-active (INA) bacteria, such as Pseudomonas syringae and Erwinia herbicola, will result in ice formation several degrees centigrade higher than would otherwise occur. Seven possible chemical frost protectants were applied to Lisbon lemons of the Yuma Mesa Ag Center. Four replications of effectiveness of the materials were evaluated by determining tip bum and fruit damage following two subfreezing episodes in December 1987. There were no statistically significant differences between treatments under the conditions of this study.
    • Effect of Nitrogen Application on Growth and Photosynthetic Nitrogen use Efficiency in Two Ecotypes of Wild Strawberry, Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Duchn

      Moon, J. W. Jr.; Bailey, D. A.; Fallahi, E.; Jensen, R. G.; Zhu, G.; Kilby, Michael W.; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-12)
      The relationships between increasing nitrogen fertilization and growth, maximum CO₂ assimilation and the initial slope of the CO₂ response curve were studied in two ecotypes of wild strawberry, Fragaria chiloensis (L) Duchn. Nitrogen accumulation of CA11, an ecotype from a low -nutrient dune site, was greater at all nitrogen concentrations than that of RCP37, an ecotype from a higher- nutrient strand site. Maximum CO₂ assimilation, total Rubisco activity, dry weight, and initiation of leaves and crowns were higher in CA11 than RCP37 as nitrogen treatment was increased from 0 to 200 mg l⁻¹, whereas these parameters were lower in CA11 when fertilized at 300 mg l⁻¹, but not in RCP37. The mean leaf area of CA11 was greater than RCP37 when grown with no supplemental nitrogen, but mean leaf area of the two lines was similar under nitrogen fertilization. Maximum CO₂ assimilation and carboxylation efficiency increased with increasing leaf nitrogen in both clones. At equivalent concentrations of leaf nitrogen, RCP37 had higher CO₂ assimilation and carboxylation efficiency than CA11 and the difference between the 2 clones increased as leaf nitrogen increased. Thus, RCP37 had a higher photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency than CA11. However, at a given applied nitrogen level, CA11 allocated more nitrogen to a unit of leaf area so that photosynthetic rates were higher than RCP37, except at the highest application of 300 mg l⁻¹. The high nitrogen accumulation capacity and resource allocation to fruiting structures (crowns) in CA11 lead us to suggest that this clone may possess genes that could increase fruit yield in cultivated strawberry.
    • Effects of Canopy Position on Quality, Photosynthesis and Mineral Nutrition of Four Citrus Varieties

      Fallahi, E.; Moon, J. W. Jr.; Butler, Marvin (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1988-12)
      Quality, leaf gas exchange and mineral content of fruit from internal be canopies were compared with those from extemal canopy positions in 4 citrus varieties: 'Kinnow' mandarin; 'Redblush' grapefruit; 'Valencia' orange; and 'Lisbon' lemon. Fruit weight, total juice per fruit, peel fresh and dry weight, and rind thickness of fruit from internal canopies of all 4 varieties were significantly higher compared with external fruit Mandarin, grapefruit, and orange fruit from external canopies had higher soluble solids and specific gravity. Leaves from internal canopy had higher photosynthesis than those of external canopy in all varieties. Fruit from internal canopies of all varieties had generally higher peel concentrations (%dry weight) of N, P and K due to a dilution effect, while the opposite condition existed in mandarin when these elements were expressed on a percent fresh weight basis. Peel Mg and S from external fruit were higher in all varieties, expressed as percentages of either dry weight or fresh weight. Nitrogen content of mandarin and orange juice and calcium content of grapefruit and lemon juice from external fruit were significantly higher, compared to those from internal canopy fruit. Eliminating fruit quality and mineral variations resulting from canopy positions is recommended by the means of cultural practices.
    • Performance of Various Lemon Types in Southwest Arizona

      Fallahi, E.; Rodney, D. R.; Butler, Marvin (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1988-12)
      Long term comparisons of 8 types of lemons (Citrus limon Bunn. F.) on Macrophylla (Alemow) (C. macrophylla) rootstock regarding yield, tree growth, and quality under the arid conditions of the Southwest were studied. 'Foothill Lisbon' showed significantly higher cumulative yield and total acid than 'Monroe Lisbon', 'Prior Lisbon', Eureka strains, and Villa Franca, and had larger fruit than other Lisbon strains. 'Prior Lisbon' produced larger tree canopy than all other strains. Overall, Eureka strains and 'Villa Franca' had lower relative cumulative yield, yield efficiency, canopy volume, soluble solids, total acid and fruit seed content , but higher soluble solids to acid ratio than Lisbon strains. All factors considered 'Foothill Lisbon' and 'Prior Lisbon' have good potential for planting in the arid climate and sandy soil of Southwest, when Macrophylla rootstock is to be used.
    • Photosynthetic Acclimation of Leaves of Three Apple Cultivars as Affected by Growth Under Full Sun or 85 Percent Shade and Subsequent Transfer to the Contrasting Light Regime

      Moon, J. W. Jr.; Fallahi, E.; Jordan, K.; Kilby, Michael W.; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-12)
    • Potential Rootstocks for "Redblush" Grapefruit in the Desert

      Fallahi, E.; Rodney, R.; McDonald, H.; Butler, Marvin (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1988-12)
      Effects of 12 rootstocks on yield, yield efficiency, bearing potential and quality of 'Redblush' grapefruit were measured and potential rootstocks recommended for the arid climate of southwest Arizona. Trees on 'Palestine' sweet lime and 'Volkamer' lemon produced high cumulative yield but small fruit. Trees on Macrophylla (Alemow) produced higher yields after 5 years of planting and had significantly higher mean yield efficiency than trees on other rootstocks. Thus, Macrophylla rootstock could be a good choice for 'Redblush' at the standard spacing and perhaps at high density spacing in southwest Arizona. Fruit of trees on 'Carrizo' and 'Troyer' citranges were largest. Trees on 'Savage' citrange had lowest yield thinnest peel and highest levels of total soluble solids and soluble solids /acid ratio. Fruit of trees on 'Swingle' citrumelo or C.P.B. 4475 rootstock consistently had higher percentage acid than those on other rootstocks. Considering yield and /or various quality factors, 'Volkamer' lemon, rough lemon , 'Palestine' sweet lime, 'Oklawaha' sour orange and particularly 'Carrizo' citrange are suitable for 'Redblush' grapefruit in the arid Southwest. 'Savage' citrange, 'Ichang' pummelo , 'Cleopatra' mandarin, and 'Swingle' were poor yielding rootstocks for 'Redblush ' grapefruit, and therefore undesirable for planting under the standard spacing of this experiment. 'Savage' and 'Swingle' might be good choices at higher densities because they have yield efficiency, high maximum bearing potential and quality.
    • Selections of Blood Oranges for Arizona Growers

      McDonald, H. H.; Fallahi, E.; Butler, Marvin (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1988-12)
      Interest in growing blood oranges in Arizona has been increasing in recent years, especially for producing fruit for sale in roadside stands. The Arizona Cooperative Citrus Registration Certification Program now has four selections from which to choose: 'Moro', 'Tarocco', 'Sanguinelli', and 'Ruby'. Each one has distinct advantages and disadvantages that should be considered before making a selection.