• Characterization of Alternaria isolates associated with Alternaria Rot of Citrus

      Pryor, Barry; Matheron, Mike; Figuli, Patricia; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2003)
      Alternaria rot of citrus is a serious problem in citrus production world wide. In Arizona, the disease is most commonly found in Minneola tangelos and navel oranges grown in Maricopa County. Alternaria rot occurs primarily as a stem-end rot on fruit held in cold storage. However, under optimum conditions the disease occurs as a stylar-end rot in the orchards. In Arizona, the disease can significantly reduce yield, and annual fruit losses have been estimated at 0.5 box per tree. In terms of fruit quality, this disease can be a serious problem for the fresh fruit market as well as for the processing industry because only a small amount of rot imparts a bitter flavor and small black fragments of rotted tissue spoil the appearance of the juice. The application of fungicides is the most common tactic used to reduce losses to this disease. However, to date, no consistent reduction in disease has been achieved through chemical applications. This suggests that additional information relating to the biology of the pathogen and the epidemiology of disease will be necessary for the successful development of a reliable disease management program.
    • Evaluation of Citrus Front Protectant Materials

      Butler, Marvin; Matheron, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-12)
      With the high cost of maintaining and operating wind machines, growers are increasingly interested in alternative methods of freeze protection. Several possible frost protectant materials were applied to Valencia oranges at the Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center. Although temperatures reached the mid-to-upper 20s at the test site during the winters of 1984-1985 and 1985-1986, no frost damage occurred. As a result, it was impossible to evaluate the effectiveness of the materials.
    • Seasonal Variation in Susceptibility of Citrus Rootstocks to Phytophthora

      Matheron, Mike; Matejka, Joe (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-12)
      Phytophthora parasitica and P. citrophthora are routinely recovered from diseased citrus groves in Arizona. Stem sections were collected monthly from Citrus macrophylla, rough lemon, .sour orange, Cleopatra mandarin, Troyer citrange and Citrus volkameriana. Stem pieces were wounded, inoculated with mycelium of P. parasitica or P. citrophthora, then incubated for 7 days at 21° C in moist chambers. For all tested rootstocks, the smallest cankers were produced on tissue collected in December, January and February, the winter dormancy period for citrus in Arizona. The period of higher susceptibility ranged between March through November, depending on the rootstock tested. Apparently, these six citrus rootstocks possess seasonal differences in their susceptibility to P. parasitica and P. citrophthora.
    • Trunk Application of Phosphorous Acid and Two Other Fungicides for Control of Phytophtora Gummosis of Citrus

      Matheron, Mike; Matejka, Joe (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-12)
      Gummosis caused by Phytophthora parasitica and P. citrophthora is a serious problem in Arizona citrus groves. In a 15-year-old Orlando tangelo planting at the Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center, a 20 cm section of trunk on each tree was painted with phosphorous acid, metalaxyl or fosetyl-Al. After treatment, pieces of bark were periodically removed from within, as well as below, the treated area and inoculated with P. parasitica and P. citrophthora. After 117 days, both Phytophthora species were inhibited on bark treated with phosphorous acid, metalaxyl or fosetyl-Al. Canker development was also reduced on bark tissue sampled 10 cm below the site of treatment. The results suggest that trunk application of phosphorous acid, metalaxyl or fosetyl-Al can provide effective protection against Phytophthora gummosis of citrus.