• Chemical Control of Citrus Thrips on Lemons in the Low Desert Areas of Arizona

      Kerns, David L.; Maurer, Michael; Langston, Dave; Tellez, Tony; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-11)
      Insecticides were evaluated for their efficacy to citrus mealybugs on lemons at three spray gallonages, 60, 240, and 600 gallons per acre. None of the products tested exhibited any activity at 60 or 240 gallons per acre. At 600 gallons per acre, Lorsban at 6 qt/A + NR-415 oil at 1.4% v/v, Supracide at 2 pt /100 gal + Kinetic at 0.25% v/v, and Applaud at 2.0 lbs -ai/A + NR -415 oil at 1.4% v/v all demonstrated the best activity. Provado at 0.1 lbs-ai/A + NR-415 oil at 1.4 %, Danitol at 0.4 lbs-ai/A + Lorsban at 4 qt/A + NR-415 oil at 1.4% v/v, and Nexter at 0.3 lbs-ai/A + NR-415 oil at 1.4% v/v showed good activity. Weaker treatments included Agri-Mek at 10 and 20 oz/A, Knack and Difenolan. For maximum control, growers should treat before the fruit is heavily infested, and use high gallonages of spray solution at a high pressure, the spray must penetrate the waxy coating to achieve activity. If applicable, a spray oil should be included to help break up the wax. However, if Supracide is used, use a high rate without oil.
    • Development of Control Measures for Alternaria Fruit Rot on Roanges in Arizona

      Matheron, Michael; Maurer, Michael; Bacon, Dean; Truman, James; Lopez, Al; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences; Department of Plant Pathology (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-09)
      The incidence and severity of Alternaria fruit rot on navel oranges has increased in Maricopa County. The objectives of this study were to test the efficacy of two fungicides, Kocide 101 and Rovral, for disease control and to determine an application schedule that will result in optimum control of disease. In 1994, compared to nontreated trees, a significant reduction in the number of dropped oranges occurred on trees sprayed one to five times with Rovral at monthly intervals from April through August. In the same year, monthly applications of Kocide 101 from April through August were no better than leaving trees untreated. In 1995, Rovral treatments from March through August provided no apparent beneficial effects on control of Alternaria fruit rot, while a single application of Kocide 101 in December, January, or February resulted in significantly less dropped oranges compared to nontreated frees. Because of the inconsistent activity of Kocide 101 and Rovral in these two studies, an additional trial is in progress during 1996. The additional data from 1996 may help identify when and what fungicide(s) could provide significant control ofAlternaria fruit rot of navel oranges in Arizona.
    • Devoloping an Action Threshold for Citrus Thrips on Lemons in the Low Desert Areas of Arizona

      Kerns, David L.; Maurer, Michael; Langston, Dave; Tellez, Tony; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-11)
      Commercial and University citrus groves were sampled over a two year period in an attempt to develop mathematical models capable of predicting fruit scarring based on the population of immature citrus thrips on susceptible fruit. Five predictive models were derived. One model correlated used citrus thrips populations from fetal fall to 2.0 in. diameter fruit. While in the other models, thrips populations were divided into four distinct fruit size cohorts. Four of the five models were statistically valid. Based on these models, lemons ½ in. in diameter, should be treated with insecticides when the number of immature CT reaches 1.5 per 10 pieces of fruit. While fruit > ½ should be treated if immature CT reach or exceed 2.0 per 10 fruit.
    • Effect of Foliar Boron Sprays on Yield and Fruit Quality of Navel Oranges in 1998 and 1999

      Maurer, Michael; Truman, James; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-10)
      A field study was designed to determine if foliar boron (B) sprays could increase fruit set and yield of 'Parent Washington' navel oranges (Citrus sinensis). Treatments consisted of two application timings (prebloom and postbloom) and five application rates 0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm B as Solubor. Leaf B levels had a significant response to both application timing and rate in 1998, but there were no significant differences in 1999. There were no significant difference in fruit quality or yield in either year.
    • Effect of Temperature and Moisture on Survival of Phytophthora in Citrus Grove Soil

      Matheron, Michael; Porchas, Martin; Maurer, Michael; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-10)
      Before replanting a citrus grove in Arizona, different preplant cultural activities may be performed, such as immediate replanting of the new citrus grove, allowing soil to lay fallow for various lengths of time, or planting the site to alfalfa for one or more years before the new citrus grove is established. A study was conducted to compare the effect of these different cultural preplant practices on the survival of Phytophthora in citrus grove soils. In June, 1998, and July, 1999, a total of 18 soil samples were collected within mature lemon groves. Each initial bulk sample was pretested, found to contain Phytophthora parasitica, then thoroughly mixed and partitioned into 1-liter plastic containers, which were subjected to different environmental and cultural conditions. The soil in each 1-liter container was tested for the presence of P. parasitica 1 and 3.5 to 4 months later. All soil samples then were placed in the greenhouse and a 6-month-old Citrus volkameriana seedling was planted in soil samples not containing plants. Three 1-liter sub-samples from each of ten 7-liter volumes of soil incubated outside for three months were also planted to citrus in the greenhouse. The soil containing plants in the greenhouse was watered as needed for 3 months, then again tested for the presence of Phytophthora. Irrigating soil infested with Phytophthora parasitica, whether it was planted to a host (citrus) of the pathogen, planted to a non-host (alfalfa) of the pathogen, or not planted at all, did not lower the pathogen to nondetectable levels. Phytophthora became and remained nondetectable only in the soil samples that were not irrigated and subjected to mean temperatures of 35 to 37° C (94 to 98° F). On the other hand, the pathogen was detectable in some soil samples subjected to dryness at lower mean temperatures of 26 to 30° C (79 to 86° F) after a citrus seedling subsequently was grown in the soil for 3 months. A dry summer fallow period following removal of a citrus grove (including as much root material as possible) was the only cultural practice among those tested that reduced the level of Phytophthora to nondetectable levels in all soil samples tested.
    • Effects of Long-Term Preemergence Herbicide Use on Growth and Yield of Citrus

      McCloskey, William B.; Maurer, Michael; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences; Maricopa County Cooperative Extension (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-11)
      The effects of several preemergence herbicides at various rates were tested on bearing Redblush' grapefruit trees and non-bearing Navel orange trees. Some of the preemergence herbicides caused foliar injury symptoms on the trees including Hyvar X Diuron, and Krovar I although they did not cause significant yield reductions in the short time period of this experiment. Several herbicides including Solicam, Surflan, and Prowl did not cause foliar injury or reduce yield and provided good weed control for various lengths of time. The Prowl treatments provided the longest period of weed control in the experiment on bearing grapefruit trees.
    • Efficacy of Insecticide to Citrus Thrips on Lemons in the Low Desert Areas of Arizona

      Kerns, David L.; Maurer, Michael; Langston, Dave; Tellez, Tony; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-11)
      New chemistries (Alert, Success, Fipronil, Ni -25, Nexter, Danitol and Baythroid) were evaluated and compared with standard chemistries (Agri-Mek, Dimethoate and Carzol) for control of citrus thrips in lemons grown in the Yuma area. Additionally, Success was compared to Carzol in a large plot commercial demonstration. Under cool, early season conditions, all products appeared to offered good thrips control. However, under warmer conditions, Nexter, Danitol, Baythroid and Dimethoate appear weak. Among the new insecticides, Success and Fipronil appear most efficacious. Alert also appeared to have good activity at the high rate, but appeared to offer shorter residual control than Fipronil or Success. Fipronil was the only new product tested that flared mites. However, rotating sulfur into the Fipronil applications appeared to help prevent flaring. Growers can expect Baythroid and Danitol to behave similarly to Dimethoate for efficacy and residual control. Under commercial conditions, Success provided thrips control equivalent to Carzol at 1.38 lbs-ai/A.
    • Impact of preplant soil treatments on survival of Phythophthora in citrus soils

      Matheron, Michael; Porchas, Martin; Maurer, Michael; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-11)
      Several different approaches are used with respect to land preparation prior to replanting citrus in Arizona. A study was initiated to examine the effect of cultural preplant practices on the survival of Phytophthora in citrus orchard soils. In June, 1998, a 2-gallon volume of soil was collected from eight different sites within a mature lemon planting on a sandy soil in Yuma or a lemon planting on a heavier soil in Mesa, AZ. Each initial sample was pre-tested, found to contain Phytophthora parasitica, then thoroughly mixed and distributed into six 1-qt plastic containers, which were subjected to different environmental and cultural conditions. The soil in each container was tested for the presence of P. parasitica 1, 4 and 9 months after initiation of the study. The preliminary results of this ongoing study are as follows. Detection of P. parasitica was lower in non-irrigated as compared to irrigated soil. P. parasitica was not detected in non-irrigated soil subjected to a mean temperature of 38°C (100° F) for 3 months. During the 9-month period of time, detection of P. parasitica in soil planted to alfalfa was not reduced compared to soil planted to citrus. Of the treatments examined, dry summer fallow may be the most effective method of reducing the population of P. parasitica to below detectable levels; however, these preliminary findings must be validated by additional planned tests.
    • Improving Management and Control of Fungal Diseases Affecting Arizona Citrus

      Matheron, Michael; Maurer, Michael; Porchas, Martin; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-11)
      Experiments were initiated to evaluate chemical disease management tools for Alternaria fruit rot on navel orange and Coniophora brown wood rot on lemon trees, examine the possible effect of branch diameter on development of Coniophora wood rot on lemon trees and continue evaluations of relative resistance of rootstocks to root rot and stem canker development when inoculated with P. citrophthora and P. parasitica. Rovral or Kocide did not significantly reduce the amount of Alternaria fruit rot on navel orange trees occurring in late summer and early autumn when applied during the preceding winter or spring months. Of several chemical treatments tested, only Nectec paste inhibited the development of Coniophora brown wood rot on inoculated lemon branches. The size of wood decay columns on branches 10 mm (0.5 inch) in diameter were significantly smaller than those developing on branches 50-70 mm (2.0-2.75 inches) in diameter. In extensive trials evaluating root rot caused by Phytophthora citrophthora and P. parasitica, some relatively tolerant rootstocks were found among the group of new potential rootstocks as well as currently used rootstocks such as rough lemon, C. macrophylla and Troyer citrange. C. volkameriana was relatively tolerant to the development of root rot by P. citrophthora but demonstrated variable tolerance to P. parasitica. Comprehensive evaluation of stem canker development on citrus rootstocks inoculated with P. citrophthora or P. parasitica revealed that rough lemon is usually highly susceptible to both pathogens, while C. volkameriana was at times less susceptible (more tolerant) than rough lemon to both pathogens. Some of the new potential rootstocks were highly tolerant or resistant to infection of stem tissue by P. citrophthora or P. parasitica.
    • Improving Management and Control of Fungal Diseases Affecting Arizona Citrus Trees, 1997

      Matheron, Michael; Maurer, Michael; Porchas, Martin; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-09)
      Studies were conducted to evaluate potential chemical disease management tools for Alternaria fruit rot on navel oranges and Coniophora brown wood rot on lemon trees, to investigate the possible effect of branch diameter on development of Coniophora wood rot on lemon trees and to summarize our evaluations of citrus rootstocks with respect to relative resistance to root rot and stem canker development when challenged with Phytophthora citrophthora and P. parasitica. We were unable to reduce the level of Alternaria fruit rot on navel oranges with single applications of Abound or copper hydroxide following significant rainfall events. Wood decay in lemon branches inoculated with Coniophora eremophila was significantly suppressed by Abound and a thick formulation of sodium tetrathiocarbonate. The degree of Coniophora brown wood rot in lemon branches of different diameters was variable, although the level of disease in 10 mm diameter branches was significantly smaller than the amount of wood decay in 30 mm diameter branches. Root loss due to Phytophthora citrophthora and P. parasitica in Citrus macrophylla, rough lemon, C. volkameriana and Troyer citrange was lower than most of the 36 different rootstocks tested. On the other hand, root loss on Carrizo citrange, C-35 citrange and sour orange was among the higher values of disease recorded. Stem canker development due to both species of Phytophthora on Troyer citrange, Carrizo citrange, sour orange and Citrus macrophylla was lower than most of the 36 rootstocks tested. Stem cankers on rough lemon and Citrus volkameriana were among the higher values of disease recorded.