• Development of Best Management Practices for Fertigation of Young Citrus Tree

      Thompson, Thomas L.; White, Scott A.; Walworth, James; Sower, Greg; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-02)
      'Newhall' navel oranges on 'Carrizo' rootstock were planted in Mar. 1997 at the Citrus Agricultural Center. The objectives of this experiment were: i) to determine the effects of N rate and fertigation frequency for microsprinkler-irrigated navel oranges on tree N status, and crop yield and quality; and ii) to develop Best Management Practices which promote optimum tree growth and production while minimizing nitrate leaching. The trees are equipped with a microsprinkler irrigation system. The experiment is a randomized complete block factorial with N rates of 0, 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 lb N/tree/year, and fertigation frequencies of weekly, monthly, and three times per year. Unfertilized control trees are also included in the experimental design. Each of the ten treatments is replicated five times. The trees were harvested for the first time in Feb. 2001. Fruit were processed through an automatic fruit sizer, and fruit from each plot were further evaluated for fruit quality. Although unfertilized control trees had lower leaf N content than fertilized trees, fruit yield and quality of controls was no lower than fertilized trees. Similarly, there were few statistically significant differences in fruit yield and quality between trees receiving different N rates and fertigation frequencies.
    • Development of Best Management Practices for Fertigation of Young Citrus Trees, 2002 Report

      Thompson, Thomas L.; White, Scott A.; Walworth, James; Sower, Greg; Wright, Glenn; Gibson, Rick (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-11)
      'Newhall' navel oranges on 'Carrizo' rootstock were planted in Mar. 1997 at the Citrus Agricultural Center. The objectives of this experiment were to i) determine the effects of N rate and fertigation frequency for microsprinkler-irrigated navel oranges on tree N status, and crop yield and quality; and ii) develop Best Management Practices which promote optimum tree growth and production while minimizing nitrate leaching. The trees are equipped with a microsprinkler irrigation system. The experiment is a randomized complete block factorial with N rates of 0, 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 lb N/tree/year, and fertigation frequencies of weekly, monthly, and three times per year. Unfertilized control trees are also included in the experimental design. Each of the ten treatments is replicated five times. The trees were harvested in Jan. 2002. Fruit were processed through an automatic fruit sizer, and fruit from each plot were further evaluated for fruit quality. Leaf N concentration was responsive to N rate, but not to fertigation frequency. Leaf N in all fertilized plots was above tissue critical levels. Fruit yield in fertilized plots was higher than in unfertilized plots, but, in fertilized treatments, there was no significant effect of N rate or fertigation frequency on fruit yield or quality.
    • Development of Best Management Practices for Fertigation of Young Citrus Trees, 2003 Report

      Thompson, Thomas L.; White, Scott A.; Walworth, James; Sower, Greg; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2003)
      ‘Newhall’ navel oranges on ‘Carrizo’ rootstock were planted in Mar. 1997 at the Citrus Agricultural Center. The objectives of this experiment, conducted during 2000 - 2003, were to i) determine the effects of N rate and fertigation frequency for microsprinkler-irrigated navel oranges on tree N status, and crop yield and quality; and ii) develop Best Management Practices which promote optimum tree growth and production while minimizing nitrate leaching. The trees were equipped with a microsprinkler irrigation system. The experiment was a randomized complete block factorial with N rates of 0, 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 lb N/tree/year, and fertigation frequencies of weekly, monthly, and three times per year. Each of the ten treatments was replicated five times. The trees were harvested in December or January of each growing season. Fruit were processed through an automatic fruit sizer, and fruit from each plot were further evaluated for fruit quality. Leaf N concentration and fruit yield of 4-6 year old trees were responsive to N rate, but not to fertigation frequency. Fruit quality and packout were not significantly affected by either N rate or fertigation frequency. Fruit yield was optimized at annual N rates of 0.25 lb/tree (four-year-old trees) to 0.35 lb/tree (six-year-old trees) during this experiment. We propose new tissue guidelines for guiding N fertilization of young microsprinkler-irrigated navel oranges.
    • Foliar applications of Lo-Biuret Urea and Potassium Phosphite to Navel Orange Trees

      Wright, Glenn; Walworth, James; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-02)
      This experiment was established in January 2000 in a block of 'Washington' navel orange trees at Verde Growers, Stanfield, AZ. Treatments included: normal grower practice, winter low biuret (LB) urea application, summer LB urea application, winter LB urea application plus winter and spring potassium phosphite, winter LB urea application plus summer potassium phosphite, and normal grower practice plus spring potassium phosphite. Each treatment was applied to approximately four acres of trees. For 2000-01, yields ranged from 40 to 45 lbs. per tree, and there was no effect of treatments upon total yield. There was a slight effect upon fruit size and grade. Trees subject to summer LB urea application had significantly more fruit of size 56, compared to trees subject to winter LB urea, and untreated, and untreated trees had significantly more fruit of size 88 than did treated trees. Also, treated trees had slightly more fruit in the fancy grade than did untreated trees.
    • Pecan Leaf Tissue Nutrient Concentrations: Temporal Relationships and Preliminary Standards

      Walworth, James; Kilby, Michael; Wright, Glenn; Gibson, Rick (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-11)
      Leaf samples were collected from five trees each of Bradley, Cheyenne, Sioux, Western Schley, and Wichita at Picacho, Arizona and five trees each of Bradley, Western Schley, and Wichita at Las Cruces, New Mexico, and analyzed nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, copper, manganese, boron, and copper at two-week intervals from mid-May to Mid-October, 2000. Yield, average nut weight, and percent kernel data were collected for each individual tree. Leaf tissue analysis indicated that concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulfur decreased. The overall trends were for zinc levels to declined, although they increased at the end of the season. Boron, calcium, magnesium and manganese, and iron concentrations increased during the growing season. Copper concentrations were variable. Preliminary nutrient standards are presented and compared to existing standards. Most nutrients were within recommended ranges, but magnesium levels were much higher than the top of the Arizona and New Mexico sufficiency ranges. Manganese was higher than the Arizona sufficiency range, but within that of New Mexico, whereas zinc was higher than the New Mexico range, but within that of Arizona.