• Applying roundup to the base of lemon tree canopies: effects on leaves, flowers, fruitlets, and yield

      McCloskey, William B.; Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; Dept. Plant Sciences, U. of A., Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center, Yuma, Arizona (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-11)
      The effect of Roundup on lemon trees (Citrus limon) was evaluated by repeatedly spraying 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 lb. a.i./acre (corresponding to 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5 quarts of Roundup Ultra/acre) on the bottom 20 to 24 inches of the tree canopies, over a three year period. The Roundup applications caused significant leaf injury in the sprayed area of the canopies and there was also significant defoliation of branches at the higher Roundup rates in all three years of the study. In 1996 after three Roundup applications, increasing rates of Roundup had no effect on flower or fruitlet production in either the sprayed or unsprayed portions of the tree canopies as judged by the counts collected from branches in each canopy zone. Similarly, in 1997 after five Roundup applications, and in 1998 after nine Roundup applications, increasing rates of Roundup had no effect on flower or fruitlet production in the sprayed or unsprayed portions of the tree canopies. Spraying Roundup on the bottom of the tree canopies did not reduce total lemon yield per tree in 1996, 1997 or 1998 at any of the application rates. In all three years of the study, increasing Roundup rates had no effect on the yield of the first or second ring picks or the percentage of the total crop picked on the first harvest date. Increasing Roundup rates also did not affect fruit size at any harvest date in 1996, 1997 or 1998. Similarly, increasing Roundup application rates did not affect fruit quality at any harvest in 1996, 1997 or 1998. Thus, there was no relationship between the rate of Roundup sprayed on the trees and yield, fruit size or quality in all three years of this study. The three years of data collected in this study indicate that accidental drift or inadvertent application of Roundup onto lemon trees when spraying weeds on the orchard floor has no significant effect on lemon tree productivity.
    • Applying Roundup to the Base of Lemon Tree Canopies: Preliminary Effects on Leaves, Flowers, Fruitlets, and Yield

      McCloskey, William B.; Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike; Department of Plant Sciences; Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-09)
      The effect of Roundup on lemon trees was evaluated by repeatedly spraying 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 lb. a.i./acre on the bottom 20 to 24 inches of the tree canopies over a three year period. The Roundup applications caused significant leaf injury in the sprayed area of the canopies and there was also significant defoliation of branches at the higher Roundup rates in all three years of the study. In 1996, flower and fruitlet counts were not affected by the Roundup applications and the 1998 data were inconclusive. However, flower and fruitlet counts in 1997 in the sprayed zone of the canopy were significantly reduced by Roundup and the effect increased with increasing Roundup rate. The 1996 and 1997 yield data indicated that Roundup applied to the bottom 20 to 24 inches of the tree canopies did not significantly affect lemon yield. The preliminary data suggest that accidental drift or misapplication of Roundup on to lemon trees when spraying weeds on the orchard floor has no short-term effect on grove productivity.
    • Citrus Orchard Floor Management 2001-2003: Comparison of a Disk, “Perfecta” Cultivator, and Weed Sensing Sprayer

      Rector, Ryan J.; McCloskey, William B.; Wright, Glenn C.; Sumner, Chris; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; Department of Plant Sciences, Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center, University of Arizona, Yuma, Arizona; Yuma County Pest Abatement District, Yuma, Arizona (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2003)
      An optical weed sensing sprayer (WeedSeeker) was evaluated for making postemergence glyphosate herbicide applications in a Yuma, AZ lemon orchard. In addition, mechanical (disk and Perfecta cultivator) and chemical weed control strategies were compared. Results were fairly similar; however, the use of the WeedSeeker units combined with a preemergence herbicide (H1) increased weed control three fold compared to disking (D) and perfecta (P1). Additionally, when the WeedSeeker units were used in conjunction with preemergence herbicides, spray volume was reduced by 66% compared to a conventional sprayer and by 57% when used for postemergence applications only. There was a relationship between weed ground cover and the area sprayed by the WeedSeeker units indicating that maximum postemergence herbicide savings will occur at low weed densities or less than 10% groundcover. The use of a sprayer with an improved suspension system allowed for faster spraying speeds than were possible with the tractor mounted sprayer. Weed control was similar for the conventional and the WeedSeeker sprayer. However, yields were variable for both years. Future investigations will include efforts to develop crop budgets based on experimental operations
    • Citrus Orchard Floor Management 2001: Comparison of a Disk, "Perfecta" Cultivator, and Weed Sensing Sprayer

      McCloskey, William B.; Wright, Glenn C.; Sumner, Christopher P.; Wright, Glenn; Gibson, Rick; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; Department of Plant Sciences, Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center, University of Arizona, Yuma, Arizona; Yuma County Pest Abatement District, Yuma, Arizona (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-11)
      Mechanical (disk and Perfecta cultivator) and chemical weed control strategies were compared in a Yuma, AZ lemon orchard. In addition, an optical weed sensing sprayer (WeedSeeker) was evaluated for making post-emergence Roundup Ultramax herbicide applications. The use of pre-emergence herbicides in conjunction with the WeedSeeker spray units has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of post-emergence herbicide and water needed to spray flood irrigated citrus orchards. There was a relationship between weed ground cover and the area sprayed by the WeedSeeker units that indicated the maximum herbicide saving will occur a low weed densities. The use of the Kawasaki Mule with its superior suspension system allowed for faster spraying speeds than were possible with the tractor mounted sprayer and this also reduced spray volume per plot. Weed control was similar for the conventional and the WeedSeeker sprayers. Future investigations will include efforts to improve the estimation of percent weed groundcover, the use of higher rates of pre-emergence herbicides and the development of crop budgets based on experimental operations.
    • Continued Evaluation of N Fertilization Practices for Surface Irrigated Lemons

      Sanchez, Charles A.; Wright, Glenn C.; Peralta, Manuel; Wright, Glenn; Yuma Agricultural Center (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2003)
      Much of the citrus produced in southwestern Arizona is grown on sandy soils. Because these soils have a low ion exchange capacity, are highly permeable to water, and are prone to nitrate leaching, achieving efficient N management presents a continuing challenge. A field study was conducted on a superstition sand to evaluate the response of lemons to combinations of soil and foliar applied N. Lemon yields significantly increased by soil applied N. Foliar N increased yields of lemons the first harvest at the lower soil N rates. However, there were no other significant responses to foliar N. Overall, there were few meaningful changes in fruit quality to N fertilization. The N content of the leaves increased linearly to soil N application
    • Cultivar Selection Trials of Navel Orange in Arizona for 2004-05

      Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona; Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004)
      Two orange cultivar trials have been established in Arizona, one at the Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center, Yuma, AZ and one at the Citrus Agriculture Center, Waddell, AZ. For the navel orange trial in Yuma, all the selections had improved yields in 2004-05. ‘Fisher’ navel continues to have the greatest yield, but is quite granulated. Of the rest in the Yuma trial, ‘Lane Late’ had the best quality and yield. For the Waddell trial, the fourth year data has been collected, and suggests that ‘Fisher’, ‘Beck-Earli’, ‘Chislett’ and ‘Lane Late’ are outperforming the other cultivars tested to date.
    • Cultivar Selection Trials of Navel Orange in Arizona for 2005-06

      Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona; Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2005)
      Two orange cultivar trials have been established in Arizona, one at the Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center, Yuma, AZ and one at the Citrus Agriculture Center, Waddell, AZ. For the navel orange trial in Yuma, all the selections had improved yields in 2005-06. ‘Fisher’ navel continues to have the greatest yield, but is quite granulated. Of the rest in the Yuma trial, ‘Lane Late’ had the best quality and yield. For the Waddell trial, the fourth year data has been collected, and suggests that ‘Fisher’, ‘Beck-Earli’, ‘Chislett’ and ‘Lane Late’ are outperforming the other cultivars tested to date.
    • Cultivar Selection Trials of Navel Orange in Arizona for 2006-07

      Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2007-10)
      Two orange cultivar trials have been established in Arizona, one at the Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center, Yuma, AZ and one at the Citrus Agriculture Center, Waddell, AZ. For the navel orange trial in Yuma, all the selections had reduced yields in 2006-07. 'Fisher' navel continues to have the greatest yield. Of the rest in the Yuma trial, 'Lane Late' had the best quality and yield. For the Waddell trial, the fourth year data has been collected, and suggests that 'Fisher', 'Beck-Earli' and 'Lane Late' are outperforming the other cultivars tested to date.
    • Early Results of Scion and Rootstock Trials for Lemon in Arizona

      Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-11)
      Four 'Lisbon' lemon selections from the University of Arizona Citrus Budwood Certification plot were selected for evaluation on Citrus rootstock 'Frost Nucellar', 'Corona Foothills', 'Limoneira 8A' and 'Prior' were selected because of their popularity among Arizona growers or because of the lack of information about their performance under Arizona climactic and edaphic conditions. Trees were planted in 1993. Early results indicate that the 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' selection is outperforming the other selections in both growth and yield. In a similar trial, five rootstocks were selected for evaluation using 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' as the scion. Carrizo citrange, Citrus macrophylla, Rough lemon, Swingle citrumelo and Citrus volkameriana were chosen. Trees were planted in 1993. Early results indicate that trees on C. volkameriana are superior to those on other rootstocks in both growth and yield.
    • Effect of Foliar Boron Sprays on Yield and Fruit Quality of Citrus

      Karim, Mohammad R.; Wright, Glenn C.; Taylor, Kathryn C.; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-09)
      Deficiency of boron (B) in citrus has serious consequences for tree health and crop production. There is evidence that B deficiency may be a problem in Arizona citrus. Certainly, many symptoms of B deficiency are apparent, especially on the Yuma Mesa. A field trial was conducted at Yuma, Arizona to examine the effect of foliar boron application on fruit yield and quality of Citrus sinensis and C. limon. Boron was applied to 5 year old Citrus sinensis cv. Hamlin and C. limon cv. Rosenberger Lisbon trees at 5 different concentrations (0 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm, 2000 ppm, 3000 ppm) either before flowering or after flowering. At harvest, fruit yield and quality, and boron concentrations were determined. Foliar application appeared to increase leaf boron concentration (r= 0.50, p= 0.004). Fruit set was increased in Hamlin trees receiving bloom and post bloom applications of boron at the 1000 ppm level. Boron applications had no significant effect on lemon yield in these studies. This fruit set increase in Hamlin accounted for a 35% increase in overall yield relative to control trees. However, there was no significant difference in fruit weight, fruit pH, titratable acidity, peel thickness, juice volume, or soluble solid content of the fruits among treatments. Previous studies indicate that boron influenced in vivo and in vitro pollen germination in many crops. A plausible explanation for increased fruit yield may be that the applied boron was transported to the flowers where it exerted its influence of increased fruit set through an effect on pollen viability and/or pollen tube growth. However, clearly boron supplementation must be performed judiciously to avoid fruit drop from over -application of the element.
    • Established 'Lisbon' Lemon Trials in Arizona - 2001-02

      Wright, Glenn C.; Peña, Marco; Wright, Glenn; Gibson, Rick; Department of Plant Sciences, U. of A., Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-11)
      Four 'Lisbon' lemon selections, 'Frost Nucellar', 'Corona Foothills', 'Limoneira 8A' and 'Prior' were selected for evaluation on Citrus volkameriana rootstock. 1994-2002 results indicate that the 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' and 'Corona Foothills Lisbon' are superior in yield and fruit earliness.
    • Established ‘Lisbon’ Lemon Trials in Arizona – 2002-03

      Wright, Glenn C.; Peña, Marco A.; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences, U. of A.; Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2003)
      Four 'Lisbon' lemon selections, 'Frost Nucellar', 'Corona Foothills', 'Limoneira 8A' and 'Prior' were selected for evaluation on Citrus volkameriana rootstock. 1994-2002 results indicate that the 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' and ‘Corona Foothills Lisbon’ are superior in yield and fruit size. Results for 2002-03 indicate that these cultivars as well as ‘Frost Nucellar’ have superior yield.
    • Evaluation and management of a "salina" strawberry clover cover crop in citrus: first year preliminary results

      McCloskey, William B.; Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; Dept. Plant Sciences, U. of A., Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center, Yuma, Arizona (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-11)
      Two orchard floor management strategies were evaluated beginning in the fall of 1997 in a 'Valencia' orange (Citrus sinensis) grove at the University of Arizona Citrus Agricultural Center (CAC) in Waddell, Arizona. The clean culture or bare ground treatment produced more yield than the ‘Salina’ strawberry clover treatment when harvested on March 10, 1999 and the tree canopy volume of the clean culture treatment was also greater than that of the clover treatment. Yield efficiency (lbs of fruit per cubic meter of canopy) was similar in the two treatments. The clean culture treatment produced more large size fruit (size 88 and larger) and less small size fruit (size 113 and smaller) than the strawberry clover treatment. Although the yield efficiency parameter suggests that it may be possible to produce as much fruit in the clover treatment as the clean culture treatment, the total yield and fruit size distribution of the clover treatment compared to the clean culture treatment were characteristic of the negative effects of competition from vegetation on the orchard floor found in other studies. Based on previous studies, competition for water was the most likely cause of the negative competitive effect. Installation of additional tensiometers to measure soil moisture at greater depths and leaf water potential measurements to assess the degree of water stress in both treatments prior to irrigation will hopefully allow further improvement in irrigation scheduling to eliminate the negative affect of having vegetation on the orchard floor in the clover plots.
    • Foliar applications of Lo-Biuret Urea and Potassium Phosphite to Navel Orange trees

      Wright, Glenn C.; Peña, Marco; Wright, Glenn; Gibson, Rick (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-11)
      This experiment was established in January 2000 in a block of 'Washington' navel orange trees at Verde Growers, Stanfield, AZ. Treatments included: normal grower practice, winter low biuret (LB) urea application, summer LB urea application, winter LB urea application plus winter and spring potassium phosphite, winter LB urea application plus summer potassium phosphite, and normal grower practice plus spring potassium phosphite. Each treatment was applied to approximately four acres of trees. For 2000-01, yields ranged from 40 to 45 lbs. per tree, and there was no effect of treatments upon total yield, and only slight effect upon fruit size, grade and quality. For 2001-02, there was a slight effect of treatment upon yield as LB urea led to improved yield, while potassium phosphite led to reduced yield. Normal grower practice was intermediate between these two extremes.
    • Foliar applications of Lo-Biuret Urea and Potassium Phosphite to Navel Orange trees

      Wright, Glenn C.; Peña, Marco; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2003)
      This experiment was established in January 2000 in a block of ‘Washington’ navel orange trees at Verde Growers, Stanfield, AZ. Treatments included: normal grower practice, winter low biuret (LB) urea application, summer LB urea application, winter LB urea application plus winter and spring potassium phosphite, winter LB urea application plus summer potassium phosphite, and normal grower practice plus spring potassium phosphite. Each treatment was applied to approximately four acres of trees. For 2000-01, yields ranged from 40 to 45 lbs. per tree, and there was no effect of treatments upon total yield, and only slight effect upon fruit size, grade and quality. For 2001-02, there was a slight effect of treatment upon yield as LB urea led to improved yield, while potassium phosphite led to reduced yield. Normal grower practice was intermediate between these two extremes. For 2002-03, we noted a large increase in yield, however the yield data was lost when the block was inadvertently harvested.
    • Foliar applications of Lo-Biuret Urea and Potassium Phosphite to Navel Orange trees

      Wright, Glenn C.; Peña, Marco; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004)
      This experiment was established in January 2000 in a block of ‘Washington’ navel orange trees at Verde Growers, Stanfield, AZ. Treatments included: normal grower practice, winter low biuret (LB) urea application, summer LB urea application, winter LB urea application plus winter and spring potassium phosphite, winter LB urea application plus summer potassium phosphite, and normal grower practice plus spring potassium phosphite. Each treatment was applied to approximately four acres of trees. For 2000-01, yields ranged from 40 to 45 lbs. per tree, and there was no effect of treatments upon total yield, and only slight effect upon fruit size, grade and quality. For 2001-02, there was a slight effect of treatment upon yield as LB urea led to improved yield, while potassium phosphite led to reduced yield. Normal grower practice was intermediate between these two extremes. For 2002-03, we noted a large increase in yield, however the yield data was lost when the block was inadvertently harvested. For 2005, there was no effect of treatments upon total yield.
    • Girdling "Fairchild" Mandarins and "Lisbon" Lemons to Improve Fruit Size

      Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike; Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, University of Arizona (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-10)
      'Fairchild' mandarins in the Phoenix area and 'Lisbon' lemons in Yuma were girdled beginning in November 1996. November, March and May girdling of the mandarins led to the greatest yield the first year, while March and May girdling led to the greatest yield in years 2 and 3. March girdling yield increases were generally due to greater fruit numbers, while in May, yield increases were due to greater fruit numbers and fruit size. Returns per acre suggest that March and or May girdling of mandarins will lead to greater profits for the grower. Like mandarins, lemon yields were greater following November, or November and March girdling after one year of the experiment. However, yields of these trees dropped considerably the second year, and the trees appear to be in an alternate bearing cycle. No lemon girdling treatment appears to be better than the untreated trees after three years.
    • Growing Blackberries in the Low Desert

      Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike; Department of Plant Sciences, Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-09)
      Twenty-five plants of each of ten blackberry cultivars from Arkansas and Texas were established at the Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center in spring 1994. All the Arkansas cultivars died. Of the Texas cultivars, 'Rosborough' and 'Womack' performed the best, followed by 'Grison' and 'Brazos'. Important cultural practices, harvesting practices and potential marketing strategies are discussed
    • Insecticidal and Yield Enhancement Qualities of Surround Particle Film Technology in Citrus

      Kerns, David L.; Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-02)
      Surround WP was evaluated at various spray volumes to determine if volumes lower than the label recommended volume of 250 gallon per acre would provide equivalent citrus thrips control and yield enhancement potential. All the spray volumes evaluated (50, 100, 150, and 250 gpa) appeared to be equally effective. It appears that as long as the spray coverage appears to be visually adequate, then coverage is sufficient. Application of Surround WP led to some increase in fruit size, particularly for the first harvest.
    • International Society of Citrus Nurserymen Conference Report

      Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-09)
      This report summarizes some of the information that I gained during a trip to the Mediterranean region during Spring 1997. The first two days of the trip were spent in Murcia, Spain, as a guest of Dr. Angel Garda Lidón. We discussed the Spanish lemon industry. After Murcia, I traveled to Valencia, Spain to take part in an International Society of Citrus Nurserymen pre-conference tour. The conference itself took place in Montpellier, France. Following the conference, I participated in a post-conference tour to Sicily.