• Adaptation of Deciduous Fruit to the Desert Climate

      Fallahi, Esmaeil; Kilby, Mike; Tilt, Phil (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-12)
      Chilling requirements and maturity of several varieties of peaches and apples were studied at the University of Arizona, Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center (Southwest Arizona) in 1985-1986. Flordared, Flordabelle, Flordabeauty, Flordagold, Desert Gold and Suwanee peaches broke their dormancy earlier than other cultivars and showed full bloom between mid-to-late January. Suwanee and Desert Gold matured earlier than other tested varieties, but they produced small size fruit with low sugar content. Anna and Dorsett Golden apples showed extended blooming period due to insufficient chilling.
    • Arizona Cooperative Citrus Registration-Certification Program Anticipates Increased Activity

      McDonald, Herbert H. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-12)
      Activity under the Arizona Cooperative Citrus Registration- Certification Program was at a new low during 1984 and 1985; no trees were budded under the program during that period. however, increased budding and bud sales during 1986 herald increased activity in the future. Because the program has continued to receive the support of the citrus industry, services have been provided uninterrupted. The program continues to maintain the foundation blocks insuring the industry with sources of budwood that have successfully met all requirements for: 1) freedom from known viruses or virus-like disorders, 2) freedom from injurious pests and diseases, and 3) trueness to horticultural type.
    • Arizona Cooperative Citrus Registration-Certification Program Celebrates Silver Anniversary

      McDonald, H. H.; Butler, Marvin (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1991-01)
      New methods of determining the content of virus and virus-like disorders in citrus trees are heralding a new era of the Arizona Cooperative Citrus Registration-Certification Program (ACCRCP). It has been 25 years since the first budwood was released to participating nurseries. During that time, the program has relied on indexing using various indicator plants. Last year, indexing was begun in the laboratory using the ELISA unit for tristeza tests. Efforts are now being made to obtain antiserum for stubborn disease which currently has no reliable indexing method using indicator plants.
    • The Ash Whitefly as a Pest of Citrus

      Byrne, David N.; Butler, Marvin; Department of Entomology (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1991-01)
    • California Red Scale Again Eradicated from Yuma County

      McDonald, H. H.; Butler, Marvin (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1991-01)
      Since 1973, Yuma County has had three apparently unrelated infestations of California Red Scale (CRS). The Yuma County citrus Pest Control District (YCCPCD) was successful in eradicating the first two in 1980 and 1984, respectively. We are continuing our spray program on the third, but our detection methods indicate that this infestation has now also been eradicated.
    • California Red Scale Eradicated in Yuma County Again

      McDonald, Herbert H. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-12)
      For the second time in two decades, the Yuma County Citrus Pest Control District has been successful in eradicating an infestation of California Red Scale in a commercial citrus grove within its boundaries. The first infestation, found in 1973, was declared eradicated in 1980. The latest infestation was found in 1984 and will be eradicated in record time. Eradication can be declared early next year after the third series of three sprayings each.
    • Chemical Freeze Protection of Citrus 1988/1989

      Butler, Marvin; Brown, Paul; Butler, Marvin (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1991-01)
      Five chemical frost protectants and a water treatment were applied to Lisbon lemons by dipping branches to insure complete coverage. A constant temperature bath was used to determine the effect of chemical frost protectants on the freezing temperature for leaf samples placed in test tubes with 10 ml of distilled water. Although the relative temperature at which the different treatments froze remained fairly constant, the differences were not significant.
    • Chemical Freeze Protection of Citrus 1989/1990

      Butler, Marvin; Brown, Paul; Butler, Marvin (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1991-01)
      Three chemical frost protectants were applied to Lisbon lemons using a hand gun operated from a John Bean sprayer. Leaf samples were placed in test tubes with 10 ml of distilled water to determine the temperature at which they froze using a constant temperature bath. Although the sample size was increased by 50 percent over the previous year, the treatments were not significantly different from the untreated.
    • Comparative Control of Phytophthora Root Rot of Citrus with Sodium Tetrathiocarbonate, Metalaxyl, and Dosetyl-Al

      Matheron, M.; Matejka, J.; Butler, Marvin (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1991-01)
      This study was initiated to evaluate and compare the effect of root and soil treatments with sodium tetrathiocarbonate (STTC) (Enzone), metalaxyl (Ridomil), and fosetyl-Al (Aliette) on subsequent development of Phytophthora root rot on citrus. Disease development was significantly reduced on rough lemon seedlings treated with STTC or metalaxyl compared to untreated plants when this citrus rootstock was inoculated with sporangia of P. citrophthora or P. parasitica. Growth of rough lemon seedlings in soil naturally infested with P. parasitica that was treated one week before planting with STTC or metalaxyl was equivalent to that obtained in sterilized orchard soil STTC applied as a soil drench at 2,450 ppm was lethal to P. citrophthora and P. parasitica on colonized leaf disks of lepton buried in soil, whereas a similar treatment with metalaxyl at 10 ppm or fosetyl Al at 3,000 ppm did not appreciably affect pathogen viability. Sporangium production on leaf disks of lemon colonized by P. citrophthora and P. parasitica and buried in soil was reduced at least 90% compared to the untreated control six days after treatment of soil with 2,450 ppm of STTC, 10 ppm of metalaxyl, or 3,000 ppm of fosetyl AL These studies demonstrate the potential usefulness of sodium tetrathiocarbonate as a fungicide for control of Phytophthora root rot of citrus. Only fosetyl-Al (Aliette) and metalaxyl (Ridomil) currently are registered for control of Phytophthora diseases on citrus.
    • Control of Insects and Mites Associated with Citrus in Yuma, Arizona

      Byrne, David N. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-12)
      A variety of insecticides have been tested during the last three years to keep pace with the ever-present demand for effective materials to control mites and thrips on citrus. This need is particularly acute with the recent loss of dicofol (Kelthane), which for years was an industry standard for mite control. Some of the more promising new compounds include Avermectin and NC 21314. Comments are included concerning the registration status of some of the compounds we tested. Cautions are given concerning the development of resistance to compounds which are soon to be available.
    • Evaluating the Potential Threat to Citrus Plantings from Phytophthora Parasitica Originating from Noncitrus Hosts

      Matheron, M.; Matejka, J.; Butler, Marvin (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1991-01)
      The relative virulence of Phytophthora parasitica recovered from citrus and other plants to rough lemon was investigated Isolates of Phytophthora parasitica from citrus were highly virulent to rough lemon seedlings, causing crown rot and significant reduction of root weight. Isolates of the pathogen from noncitrus hosts caused slight damage to rough lemon, with no crown rot and only minor reduction of root weight. Evidently, isolates of P. parasitica from several noncitrus hosts do not pose a serious threat to citrus groves.
    • Evaluation of Citrus Front Protectant Materials

      Butler, Marvin; Matheron, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-12)
      With the high cost of maintaining and operating wind machines, growers are increasingly interested in alternative methods of freeze protection. Several possible frost protectant materials were applied to Valencia oranges at the Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center. Although temperatures reached the mid-to-upper 20s at the test site during the winters of 1984-1985 and 1985-1986, no frost damage occurred. As a result, it was impossible to evaluate the effectiveness of the materials.
    • Evaluation of Materials for Control of Citrus Thrips

      Butler, Marvin; Byrne, David N. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-12)
      The control of citrus thrips is a major concern for citrus growers in the Yuma area. Five materials were evaluated for control of citrus thrips on Lisbon lemons at the Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center during July and August of 1985. Although there was no statistically significant differences between treatments, Mavrik appeared to provide the best control of the materials tested. Dimethoate (Cygon) and formetanate hydrochloride (Carzol) were not tested.
    • Influence of Rootstocks on Yield and Quality of "Redblush" Grapefruit

      Fallahi, Esmaeil; Rodney, David Ross; McDonald, Herbert (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-12)
      The influence of 12 different rootstocks on yield and quality of "Redblush" grapefruit was studied for several years. Rootstocks consisted of: macrophylla, volkameriana, rough lemon, Palestine sweet lime, sour orange, Carrizo citrange, taiwanica, Savage citrange, Citrumelo, Ichang pummelo, Troyer citrange and Cleopatra mandarin. Trees on volkameriana, Palestine sweet lime, rough lemon, and sour orange had higher yield than other rootstocks, while trees on Savage citrange had lowest yield. However, soluble solids and acid /sugar ratio were relatively low in the fruits on volkameriana but high in fruit on Savage citrange rootstocks.
    • Phytophthora Gummosis and Root Rot of Citrus-Effect of Temperature on Disease Development

      Matheron, M.; Matejka, J.; Butler, Marvin (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1991-01)
      Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of temperature on development of Phytophthora gummosis and root rot of citrus as well as the influence of temperature on sporulation of Phytophthora citrophthora and P. parasitica. Maximum production of sporangia by each fungus occurred at 25 C, while slight or no sporangia production occurred at 10, 15, and 35 C. Minimal growth of lesions was observed when stems of rough lemon were inoculated with P. citrophthora or P. parasitica and incubated at 5 and 30 C or 10 and 30 C, respectively. The inhibitory and stimulating effect of certain temperatures on sporulation and disease development could be useful for determination of optimum times for application of fungicides or other disease control measures.
    • Report on the Salt River Valley Citrus Experiment Station

      True, Lowell; Bacon, Dean; Butler, Marvin (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1991-01)
    • Seasonal Changes in Extent of Colonization of Citrus Root Tissue by Phytophthora citrophthora and P. parasitica

      Matheron, M.; Matejka, J.; Butler, Marvin (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1991-01)
      For 24 consecutive months, root pieces were collected from field -grown Lisbon lemon trees established on Citrus aurantium (sour orange), C. jambhiri (rough lemon), and C. volkameriana rootstocks. Root segments were wounded, inoculated with Phytophthora citrophthora or P. parasitica, and incubated for 96 hr in moist chambers. Smaller lesions developed during Jan -Feb than during Jul-Oct on root pieces of all tested rootstocks inoculated with P. citrophthora as well as root pieces of C aurantium inoculated with P. parasitica. Apparently there is a seasonal variation in the susceptibility of citrus rootstocks to colonization by Phytophthora. This information could be useful for more effective timing of fungicide applications.
    • Seasonal Variation in Susceptibility of Citrus Rootstocks to Phytophthora

      Matheron, Mike; Matejka, Joe (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-12)
      Phytophthora parasitica and P. citrophthora are routinely recovered from diseased citrus groves in Arizona. Stem sections were collected monthly from Citrus macrophylla, rough lemon, .sour orange, Cleopatra mandarin, Troyer citrange and Citrus volkameriana. Stem pieces were wounded, inoculated with mycelium of P. parasitica or P. citrophthora, then incubated for 7 days at 21° C in moist chambers. For all tested rootstocks, the smallest cankers were produced on tissue collected in December, January and February, the winter dormancy period for citrus in Arizona. The period of higher susceptibility ranged between March through November, depending on the rootstock tested. Apparently, these six citrus rootstocks possess seasonal differences in their susceptibility to P. parasitica and P. citrophthora.
    • Trunk Application of Phosphorous Acid and Two Other Fungicides for Control of Phytophtora Gummosis of Citrus

      Matheron, Mike; Matejka, Joe (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-12)
      Gummosis caused by Phytophthora parasitica and P. citrophthora is a serious problem in Arizona citrus groves. In a 15-year-old Orlando tangelo planting at the Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center, a 20 cm section of trunk on each tree was painted with phosphorous acid, metalaxyl or fosetyl-Al. After treatment, pieces of bark were periodically removed from within, as well as below, the treated area and inoculated with P. parasitica and P. citrophthora. After 117 days, both Phytophthora species were inhibited on bark treated with phosphorous acid, metalaxyl or fosetyl-Al. Canker development was also reduced on bark tissue sampled 10 cm below the site of treatment. The results suggest that trunk application of phosphorous acid, metalaxyl or fosetyl-Al can provide effective protection against Phytophthora gummosis of citrus.