• Evaluation of Insecticide Applications for Citrus Thrips Control Under Hot Conditions

      Kerns, David L.; Tellez, Tony; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-02)
      A small plot efficacy trial was conducted evaluating citrus thrips control under hot conditions. Average daily maximum temperatures ranged from the mid-90’s to low 100°F’s. Success and Carzol were the most efficacious products evaluated, followed by Lorsban and Dimethoate. Both Lorsban and Dimethoate provided good initial thrips control but were short lived. Lorsban appeared to have a slightly longer residual than Dimethoate. Both of the pyrethroids, Baythroid and Danitol, performed poorly. Neither provided good thrips knockdown or residual control. Pyrethroids should be avoided for thrips control when temperatures equal or exceed 95°F. We were not able to demonstrate any adverse effect on efficacy towards thrips by acidifying Success. However, Success is not prone to hydrolysis at high pHs, and acidification is not necessary or advised.
    • Evaluation of Pre-Petal Fall Citrus Thrips Control

      Kerns, David L.; Tellez, Tony; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-02)
      A small plot trial was conducted to evaluate the benefit of applying insecticides for citrus thrips management pre-petal fall. Because of low thrips densities during the pre-petal period, we were not able to discern tangible benefits from making prepetal applications. However, in situations where fruit is present and petal fall has not fully occurred, these applications may be useful to protect these fruit. Of the acute toxicants evaluated pre-petal fall (Assail and Success), Assail appeared to be the best choice. However, if temperatures are approaching 95°F, Assail should be avoided. Pre-petal fall applications of Surround and Snow are beneficial in respect that several applications of these products may be required to obtain adequate coverage, and by making these applications during the pre-petal fall period, thrips can be managed before many susceptible fruit are present.
    • Insecticidal and Yield Enhancement Qualities of Surround Particle Film Technology in Citrus

      Kerns, David L.; Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-02)
      Surround WP was evaluated at various spray volumes to determine if volumes lower than the label recommended volume of 250 gallon per acre would provide equivalent citrus thrips control and yield enhancement potential. All the spray volumes evaluated (50, 100, 150, and 250 gpa) appeared to be equally effective. It appears that as long as the spray coverage appears to be visually adequate, then coverage is sufficient. Application of Surround WP led to some increase in fruit size, particularly for the first harvest.
    • Insecticidal Control of Woolly Whiteflies

      Kerns, David L.; Wright, Glenn; Gibson, Rick (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-11)
      Four foliar insecticides (Esteem, Provado, Applaud and Assail) and one soil systemic insecticide (Admire) were evaluated for their control of woolly whitefly in lemons. These insecticides were chosen for evaluation because they have demonstrated efficacy to other whitefly species and have little or no impact on whitefly parasitoids. Admire was injected with a single shank about 5-in deep around each tree approximately at the tree’s drip line. All of the foliar insecticides were effective in controlling woolly whitefly. Admire also appeared to have efficacy, but due to inconsistent data on one sample date more testing should be conducted. Six weeks after the beginning of this test, whitefly parasitoids, Eretmocerus comperei or E. dozieri (exact species not certain) reduced the whitefly population across all treatments. Within two more months, no live whiteflies could be found in the test grove, and as of July 15, 2002, there was still no detectable woolly whitefly activity.
    • Insecticide Rotation and Pre-Petal Fall Applications for Citrus Thrips Management

      Kerns, David L.; Tellez, Tony; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-10)
      Under low citrus thrips pressure and cool temperatures, Alert, Baythroid, Carzol, Success and Acetamiprid applied at petal fall were all effective control agents. Mid-season applications of Baythroid and Danitol were also effective but appeared to be slightly inferior to Success and Alert in residual control. Despite the prolonged blooming and petal drop period experienced during this trial, plots receiving pre-petal fall applications of Acetamiprid did not produce higher quality fruit than treatments where applications began following petal fall. The fact that thrips densities were low during this period may be the reason. Before pre-petal fall insecticide applications can be deemed useful and economically justifiable, evaluations must be made at higher thrips infestation levels.
    • Potential Use of Esteem for Control of Woolly Whitefly in Citrus

      Kerns, David L.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-02)
      Esteem was evaluated for its efficacy towards woolly whitefly in grapefruit and Minneola tangelos. Esteem was efficacious, but because of spray coverage problems on large trees, failed to offer complete control. Higher rates should be used where infestations are severe, or the trees are large and coverage difficult. Follow-up applications may be necessary to maintain control.
    • Relative Susceptibility of Citrus Thrips Nymphs and Adults to Insecticides

      Kerns, David L.; Wright, Glenn; Gibson, Rick (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-11)
      Agri-Mek, Assail, Baythroid, Carzol, and Success were all evaluated for their activity towards citrus thrips nymphs relative to adults. Based on leaf dip bioassays, Dimethoate was approximately 3 times more toxic to the adults than to the nymphs. However with leaf dip bioassays, a 3-fold difference, although statistically significant, is usually inconsequential. Success was the only insecticide that demonstrated a noteworthy difference in toxicity to nymphs compared to adults in the bioassay; it was 45 times more toxic to the nymphs than to the adults. Based on X2 contingency tables, lemon trees treated with Carzol, Success, or Baythroid all had significantly lower percentages of nymphs relative to the untreated control. Based on these data, when the citrus thrips population is composed primarily of nymphs, citrus growers and pest control advisors might consider using Carzol, Success, or Baythroid since they appear to impact the nymph population more than the adult population.
    • Tank Mixing Success for Citrus Thrips Control is Not Necessary

      Kerns, David L.; Tellez, Tony; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-10)
      A small plot efficacy trial was conducted evaluating thrips control with Dimethoate, Baythroid, and Success at rates of 4, 6, and 9 oz/ac, and tank mixes of the low and medium rates of Success with Dimethoate or Baythroid. Based on a 10% fruit infestation threshold, Dimethoate required three applications while the other treatments required two applications to achieve season long thrips control. However, when evaluating the treatments based on a cost effectiveness index, none of the tank mixes or Success at 9 oz./ac were economically advisable. The most cost effective treatment was Success at 4 oz/ac, followed by Success at 6 oz/ac, Dimethoate, and Baythroid.