• Contributions of Beneficial Soil Fungi to Drought Stress Tolerance of Young Citrus

      Fidelibus, Matthew; Martin, Chris; Stutz, Jean; Wright, Glenn; Department of Botony, Arizona State University (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-11)
      Four arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal isolates (Glomus sp.) from disparate edaphic conditions were screened for effects on whole -plant transpiration of juvenile 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Ten. and Pasq.) plants of similar shoot mass and canopy leaf area. Mycorrhizal and non -mycorrhizal plants were grown in 8 -liter containers for 2.5 months under well- watered conditions before subjection to three consecutive soil drying episodes of increased severity (soil moisture tensions of -0.02 [still moist], -0.06 [moderately dry], and -0.08[dry] MPa respectively). Whole plant transpiration measurements were made on the last day of each soil drying episode and measurements were repeated on the first and second days after re- watering, when soil profiles were moist. The percent root length colonized by AM fungi differed among isolates. Three AM fungal isolates, Glomus sp. 25A, Glomus mosseae (Nicol. & Gerde.) Gerde. & Trappe 114C, and Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith FL 208-3 increased root length and subsequently increased lemon plant water use. Conversely, plants inoculated with Glomus mosseae 51C did not enhance lemon plant root length nor improve plant water use compared with nonmycorrhizal control plants. Inoculating citrus with AM fungi that promote root extension may reduce plant water deficit stress under field conditions.
    • Effect of Foliar Boron Sprays on Yield and Fruit Quality of Citrus

      Karim, Mohammad R.; Wright, Glenn C.; Taylor, Kathryn C.; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-09)
      Deficiency of boron (B) in citrus has serious consequences for tree health and crop production. There is evidence that B deficiency may be a problem in Arizona citrus. Certainly, many symptoms of B deficiency are apparent, especially on the Yuma Mesa. A field trial was conducted at Yuma, Arizona to examine the effect of foliar boron application on fruit yield and quality of Citrus sinensis and C. limon. Boron was applied to 5 year old Citrus sinensis cv. Hamlin and C. limon cv. Rosenberger Lisbon trees at 5 different concentrations (0 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm, 2000 ppm, 3000 ppm) either before flowering or after flowering. At harvest, fruit yield and quality, and boron concentrations were determined. Foliar application appeared to increase leaf boron concentration (r= 0.50, p= 0.004). Fruit set was increased in Hamlin trees receiving bloom and post bloom applications of boron at the 1000 ppm level. Boron applications had no significant effect on lemon yield in these studies. This fruit set increase in Hamlin accounted for a 35% increase in overall yield relative to control trees. However, there was no significant difference in fruit weight, fruit pH, titratable acidity, peel thickness, juice volume, or soluble solid content of the fruits among treatments. Previous studies indicate that boron influenced in vivo and in vitro pollen germination in many crops. A plausible explanation for increased fruit yield may be that the applied boron was transported to the flowers where it exerted its influence of increased fruit set through an effect on pollen viability and/or pollen tube growth. However, clearly boron supplementation must be performed judiciously to avoid fruit drop from over -application of the element.
    • Efficient Irrigation and Nitrogen Management for Lemons: Results for 1993-1995

      Sanchez, C. A.; Wilcox, M.; Wright, G. C.; Brown, P.; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-09)
      Studies are being conducted which aim to improve the efficiency of irrigation and N fertilization for lemons produced on sandy soils in the low desert. The first experiment evaluates the response of 'Lisbon' lemons to various flood irrigation intervals. Irrigation intervals are based on soil moisture depletion (SMD) as calculated from frequent neutron probe soil moisture measurements. Individual treatments were irrigated when total SMD was 25 %, 40 %, 55 %, and 70 %, respectively. The second experiment compares the performance of young lemons produced under flood, trickle, and micro -spray irrigation systems. The third experiment evaluates the response of young lemons to water and N combinations (3 by 3 factorial) under micro -spray irrigation. The three irrigation rates were targeted for 30 cnbar, 20 cnbar, and 10 cnbar tension. The three N rates were 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 kg N /tree. One flood irrigation treatment was added for comparative purposes. Overall, results obtained in experiment 1 during 1994 and 1995 indicate optimal fruit growth ,and yield is obtained at approximately 40% SMD. The results of experiment 2 show that after 18 months micro -spray irrigation produced significantly more tree growth than flood and drip irrigation methods. Additionally, first year fruit yields were significantly greater for pressurized irrigation compared to flood irrigation. Results from experiment 3 show a linear response in tree growth up to 10 cnbar soil moisture tension. Furthermore, tree growth at 10 cnbar tension was significantly greater than trees irrigated by flood. Yields were also increased to irrigation regime. There were no significant differences in tree growth to N fertilization rates. However, there was a yield increase to N fertilizer rate at the highest soil moisture regime.