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Effect of Nitrogen Application on Growth and Photosynthetic Nitrogen use Efficiency in Two Ecotypes of Wild Strawberry, Fragaria chiloensis (L.) DuchnThe relationships between increasing nitrogen fertilization and growth, maximum CO₂ assimilation and the initial slope of the CO₂ response curve were studied in two ecotypes of wild strawberry, Fragaria chiloensis (L) Duchn. Nitrogen accumulation of CA11, an ecotype from a low -nutrient dune site, was greater at all nitrogen concentrations than that of RCP37, an ecotype from a higher- nutrient strand site. Maximum CO₂ assimilation, total Rubisco activity, dry weight, and initiation of leaves and crowns were higher in CA11 than RCP37 as nitrogen treatment was increased from 0 to 200 mg l⁻¹, whereas these parameters were lower in CA11 when fertilized at 300 mg l⁻¹, but not in RCP37. The mean leaf area of CA11 was greater than RCP37 when grown with no supplemental nitrogen, but mean leaf area of the two lines was similar under nitrogen fertilization. Maximum CO₂ assimilation and carboxylation efficiency increased with increasing leaf nitrogen in both clones. At equivalent concentrations of leaf nitrogen, RCP37 had higher CO₂ assimilation and carboxylation efficiency than CA11 and the difference between the 2 clones increased as leaf nitrogen increased. Thus, RCP37 had a higher photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency than CA11. However, at a given applied nitrogen level, CA11 allocated more nitrogen to a unit of leaf area so that photosynthetic rates were higher than RCP37, except at the highest application of 300 mg l⁻¹. The high nitrogen accumulation capacity and resource allocation to fruiting structures (crowns) in CA11 lead us to suggest that this clone may possess genes that could increase fruit yield in cultivated strawberry.
Evaluation and management of a "salina" strawberry clover cover crop in citrus: first year preliminary resultsTwo orchard floor management strategies were evaluated beginning in the fall of 1997 in a 'Valencia' orange (Citrus sinensis) grove at the University of Arizona Citrus Agricultural Center (CAC) in Waddell, Arizona. The clean culture or bare ground treatment produced more yield than the ‘Salina’ strawberry clover treatment when harvested on March 10, 1999 and the tree canopy volume of the clean culture treatment was also greater than that of the clover treatment. Yield efficiency (lbs of fruit per cubic meter of canopy) was similar in the two treatments. The clean culture treatment produced more large size fruit (size 88 and larger) and less small size fruit (size 113 and smaller) than the strawberry clover treatment. Although the yield efficiency parameter suggests that it may be possible to produce as much fruit in the clover treatment as the clean culture treatment, the total yield and fruit size distribution of the clover treatment compared to the clean culture treatment were characteristic of the negative effects of competition from vegetation on the orchard floor found in other studies. Based on previous studies, competition for water was the most likely cause of the negative competitive effect. Installation of additional tensiometers to measure soil moisture at greater depths and leaf water potential measurements to assess the degree of water stress in both treatments prior to irrigation will hopefully allow further improvement in irrigation scheduling to eliminate the negative affect of having vegetation on the orchard floor in the clover plots.