• Adaptation of Deciduous Fruit to the Desert Climate

      Fallahi, Esmaeil; Kilby, Mike; Tilt, Phil (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-12)
      Chilling requirements and maturity of several varieties of peaches and apples were studied at the University of Arizona, Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center (Southwest Arizona) in 1985-1986. Flordared, Flordabelle, Flordabeauty, Flordagold, Desert Gold and Suwanee peaches broke their dormancy earlier than other cultivars and showed full bloom between mid-to-late January. Suwanee and Desert Gold matured earlier than other tested varieties, but they produced small size fruit with low sugar content. Anna and Dorsett Golden apples showed extended blooming period due to insufficient chilling.
    • Analysis and Evaluation of the Performance of Surface N-Fertigation on the Yuma Mesa

      Sanchez, C. A.; Zerihun, D.; Wright, Glenn; Gibson, Rick (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-11)
      The application of N-fertilizers mixed with a surface irrigation stream (surface N-fertigation) is widely practiced in the Yume Mesa. Guidelines for the efficient management of surface N-fertigation systems are needed. The purpose of the work reported herein is to evaluate the relative effectiveness of existing surface N-fertigation management practices in the Yuma Mesa. This has been accomplished through the following steps: (1) a complete set of performance indices that can be used to assess the relative merit of alternative management scenarios are identified and defined and Equations as well as solutions for quantifying the performance indices are proposed; (2) surface fertigation field experiments (using Br- as a tracer) were performed in two irrigation basins at the Yuma Mesa research farm of the University of Arizona during the fall season of 2000; (3) the spatial distribution as well as the application efficiency and adequacy of Br- applied with irrigation water was determined using the performance functions proposed herein; and (4) the results were analyzed to assess the merits and limitations of existing practices.
    • Analysis of Rootstocks and New Fungicides for Control of Phytophthora Root Rot and Gummosis in Arizona Citrus Groves

      Matheron, Michael; Porchas, Martin; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-09)
      Experiments were initiated to evaluate potential new citrus rootstocks for their relative tolerance or resistance to root rot and gummosis caused by Phytophthora citrophthora and P. parasitica and to determine the efficacy of potential new fungicides for disease control. In greenhouse trials conducted in 1994 and 1995, the range of root loss due to Phytophthora in the 44 different rootstocks tested ranged from 26-96 %. Rootstocks sustaining 80% or less root loss will be evaluated further to identify those with superior tolerance to Phytophthora. In growth chamber experiments, the same rootstocks were inoculated on the stem to evaluate resistance to gummosis. The length of canker that developed on these test plants ranged from 1-25 mm. Rootstocks with canker development in the range of 1-10 mm in length will be tested further to identify the most resistant selections. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the comparative activity of Aliette, Ridomil, Dimethomorph, Fluazinam, ICIA-5504, and SM-9 at concentrations of 1, 10, 100, and 1, 000 mg/l on sporulation and growth of P. citrophthora and P. parasitica. Each of the four new molecules was either comparable or superior to Aliette or Ridomil with respect to activity on at least one component of the life cycle of the Phytophthora species tested. The results presented in this report are preliminary in nature and will be validated in future studies.
    • Annual Weed Control in Apples -- Spring Valley Farms 1984-85

      Heathman, Stanley; Kilby, Mike; Kilby, Michael W.; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-12)
    • Applying roundup to the base of lemon tree canopies: effects on leaves, flowers, fruitlets, and yield

      McCloskey, William B.; Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; Dept. Plant Sciences, U. of A., Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center, Yuma, Arizona (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-11)
      The effect of Roundup on lemon trees (Citrus limon) was evaluated by repeatedly spraying 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 lb. a.i./acre (corresponding to 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5 quarts of Roundup Ultra/acre) on the bottom 20 to 24 inches of the tree canopies, over a three year period. The Roundup applications caused significant leaf injury in the sprayed area of the canopies and there was also significant defoliation of branches at the higher Roundup rates in all three years of the study. In 1996 after three Roundup applications, increasing rates of Roundup had no effect on flower or fruitlet production in either the sprayed or unsprayed portions of the tree canopies as judged by the counts collected from branches in each canopy zone. Similarly, in 1997 after five Roundup applications, and in 1998 after nine Roundup applications, increasing rates of Roundup had no effect on flower or fruitlet production in the sprayed or unsprayed portions of the tree canopies. Spraying Roundup on the bottom of the tree canopies did not reduce total lemon yield per tree in 1996, 1997 or 1998 at any of the application rates. In all three years of the study, increasing Roundup rates had no effect on the yield of the first or second ring picks or the percentage of the total crop picked on the first harvest date. Increasing Roundup rates also did not affect fruit size at any harvest date in 1996, 1997 or 1998. Similarly, increasing Roundup application rates did not affect fruit quality at any harvest in 1996, 1997 or 1998. Thus, there was no relationship between the rate of Roundup sprayed on the trees and yield, fruit size or quality in all three years of this study. The three years of data collected in this study indicate that accidental drift or inadvertent application of Roundup onto lemon trees when spraying weeds on the orchard floor has no significant effect on lemon tree productivity.
    • Applying Roundup to the Base of Lemon Tree Canopies: Preliminary Effects on Leaves, Flowers, Fruitlets, and Yield

      McCloskey, William B.; Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike; Department of Plant Sciences; Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-09)
      The effect of Roundup on lemon trees was evaluated by repeatedly spraying 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 lb. a.i./acre on the bottom 20 to 24 inches of the tree canopies over a three year period. The Roundup applications caused significant leaf injury in the sprayed area of the canopies and there was also significant defoliation of branches at the higher Roundup rates in all three years of the study. In 1996, flower and fruitlet counts were not affected by the Roundup applications and the 1998 data were inconclusive. However, flower and fruitlet counts in 1997 in the sprayed zone of the canopy were significantly reduced by Roundup and the effect increased with increasing Roundup rate. The 1996 and 1997 yield data indicated that Roundup applied to the bottom 20 to 24 inches of the tree canopies did not significantly affect lemon yield. The preliminary data suggest that accidental drift or misapplication of Roundup on to lemon trees when spraying weeds on the orchard floor has no short-term effect on grove productivity.
    • Arizona Cooperative Citrus Registration-Certification Program Anticipates Increased Activity

      McDonald, Herbert H. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-12)
      Activity under the Arizona Cooperative Citrus Registration- Certification Program was at a new low during 1984 and 1985; no trees were budded under the program during that period. however, increased budding and bud sales during 1986 herald increased activity in the future. Because the program has continued to receive the support of the citrus industry, services have been provided uninterrupted. The program continues to maintain the foundation blocks insuring the industry with sources of budwood that have successfully met all requirements for: 1) freedom from known viruses or virus-like disorders, 2) freedom from injurious pests and diseases, and 3) trueness to horticultural type.
    • Arizona Cooperative Citrus Registration-Certification Program Celebrates Silver Anniversary

      McDonald, H. H.; Butler, Marvin (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1991-01)
      New methods of determining the content of virus and virus-like disorders in citrus trees are heralding a new era of the Arizona Cooperative Citrus Registration-Certification Program (ACCRCP). It has been 25 years since the first budwood was released to participating nurseries. During that time, the program has relied on indexing using various indicator plants. Last year, indexing was begun in the laboratory using the ELISA unit for tristeza tests. Efforts are now being made to obtain antiserum for stubborn disease which currently has no reliable indexing method using indicator plants.
    • The Ash Whitefly as a Pest of Citrus

      Byrne, David N.; Butler, Marvin; Department of Entomology (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1991-01)
    • Assessing the Risk of Insecticide Resistance in Citrus Thrips in Arizona

      Kerns, David L.; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004)
      Bioassay with Dimethoate, Carzol, Danitol, Baythroid and Success were conducted on citrus thrips collected from the Yuma Mesa to determine if insecticide resistance to these insecticides occurred. Low to moderate levels of resistance were detected for Dimethoate, Carzol and Danitol, and one population exhibited a high level of resistance to Baythroid. No resistance was evident for Success. Susceptibility to Success was much higher for the Yuma populations relative to populations previously reported in California.
    • Biology and Control of Coniophora Causing Decay and Decline in Arizona Citrus

      Gilbertson, R. L.; Matheron, M. E.; Bigelow, D. M.; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-09)
      A field survey of mature lemon trees showed an average of 30% of trees with symptoms of brown heartwood rot caused by Coniophora sp. In vivo growth of Coniophora inoculated into branches of different types of citrus (Valencia orange, Marsh grapefruit, Orlando tangelo or Lisbon lemon) on rough lemon rootstock was significantly higher in lemon while Coniophora inoculated into Lisbon lemon wood branches on trees established on rough lemon, volkameriana, macrophylla, Cleopatra mandarin, sour orange or Troyer citrange rootstocks showed no significant differences in growth. Vegetative incompatibility trials from one mature orchard demonstrated that isolates from different trees are incompatible. In vitro fungicide trials showed that only NECTEC paste effectively reduced decay on lemon blocks 15 weeks after inoculation with Coniophora. Field fungicide trials showed that NECTEC P paste as well as the blank paste without fungicides, propiconazole at 10,000 μg /ml, imazalil at 20, 000 μg /ml or propiconazole plus imazalil in combination at 10,000 and 20,000 μg/ml, respectively, significantly inhibited the advance of fungus 7 mo. after inoculation. A second fungus isolated from brown rot in branches in younger orchards was identified as Antrodia sinuosa, a native decay fungus on conifers in Arizona.
    • Biology and Control of Lemon Tree Wood Rot Diseases

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Wright, Glenn; Gibson, Rick; University of Arizona, Yuma Agricultural Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-11)
      Brown heartwood rot is commonly found in mature lemon groves in southwestern Arizona. Two basidiomycete fungi, Antrodia sinuosa and Coniophora eremophila, have been isolated from symptomatic trees. A major difference between the two pathogens is that Antrodia forms spore-producing fruiting bodies on infected wood within lemon groves, whereas fruiting on lemon wood infected by Coniophora has not been observed. A third fungus, a species of Nodulisporium, recently was recovered from small dead lemon tree branches with an internal white wood rot. Experiments were conducted to compare the severity of wood rot caused by each of these pathogens. The highest rates of wood decay for each pathogen occurred from May through October, when the mean length of wood decay columns for Antrodia, Coniophora and Nodulisporium was 183, 94 and 146 mm, respectively, and the mean air temperature was 29°C. In comparison, the mean length of wood decay columns from November through April for the same pathogens was 35, 18 and 38 mm, respectively, with a mean air temperature of 17°C. When inoculated with Antrodia, Coniophora or Nodulisporium, the length of wood decay columns on 40- mm-diameter branches was 26, 38 and 24% larger, respectively, compared to wood decay on 10-mm-diameter branches. The length of wood decay columns on inoculated Lisbon lemon was always numerically greater than that on tested orange, grapefruit and tangelo trees. Compared to lemon, wood decay columns ranged from 45 (on grapefruit) to 62 %( on orange) shorter when inoculated with Antrodia, 52 (on orange) to 59% (on tangelo) for Coniophora and 20 (on tangelo) to 51% (on grapefruit) for Nodulisporium. Compared to non-treated branches, suppression of wood decay in the presence of a test fungicide ranged from 28 to 79% for Antrodia, 77 to 91% for Coniophora and 71 to 92% for Nodulisporium. For each pathogen, the lowest numerical degree of wood rot suppression occurred in the presence of trifloxystrobin (Flint), whereas the highest level of suppression was observed with propiconazole (Break). On greasewood, mesquite, Palo Verde and salt cedar, the length of wood decay columns ranged from 20 to 60 mm when inoculated with Antrodia, 1 to 63 mm for Coniophora and 24 to 90 mm for Nodulisporium. For all three wood-rotting fungi, resultant wood decay columns were always much greater on lemon compared to tested desert-dwelling plants. Current disease management strategies include minimizing branch fractures and other non-pruning wounds as well as periodic inspection of trees and removal of infected branches, including physical removal of all wood infected with Antrodia from the grove site.
    • California Red Scale Again Eradicated from Yuma County

      McDonald, H. H.; Butler, Marvin (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1991-01)
      Since 1973, Yuma County has had three apparently unrelated infestations of California Red Scale (CRS). The Yuma County citrus Pest Control District (YCCPCD) was successful in eradicating the first two in 1980 and 1984, respectively. We are continuing our spray program on the third, but our detection methods indicate that this infestation has now also been eradicated.
    • California Red Scale Eradicated in Yuma County Again

      McDonald, Herbert H. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-12)
      For the second time in two decades, the Yuma County Citrus Pest Control District has been successful in eradicating an infestation of California Red Scale in a commercial citrus grove within its boundaries. The first infestation, found in 1973, was declared eradicated in 1980. The latest infestation was found in 1984 and will be eradicated in record time. Eradication can be declared early next year after the third series of three sprayings each.
    • Characterization of Alternaria isolates associated with Alternaria Rot of Citrus

      Pryor, Barry; Matheron, Mike; Figuli, Patricia; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2003)
      Alternaria rot of citrus is a serious problem in citrus production world wide. In Arizona, the disease is most commonly found in Minneola tangelos and navel oranges grown in Maricopa County. Alternaria rot occurs primarily as a stem-end rot on fruit held in cold storage. However, under optimum conditions the disease occurs as a stylar-end rot in the orchards. In Arizona, the disease can significantly reduce yield, and annual fruit losses have been estimated at 0.5 box per tree. In terms of fruit quality, this disease can be a serious problem for the fresh fruit market as well as for the processing industry because only a small amount of rot imparts a bitter flavor and small black fragments of rotted tissue spoil the appearance of the juice. The application of fungicides is the most common tactic used to reduce losses to this disease. However, to date, no consistent reduction in disease has been achieved through chemical applications. This suggests that additional information relating to the biology of the pathogen and the epidemiology of disease will be necessary for the successful development of a reliable disease management program.
    • Chemical Control and Integrated Pest Management of Woolly Whitefly

      Kerns, David L.; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004)
      Five foliar insecticide treatments (Esteem, two rates of Provado, two rates of Applaud, Prev-am, and Danitol + Lorsban) were evaluated for their control of woolly whitefly infestations in grapefruit. All of these products demonstrated efficacy in mitigating woolly whitefly populations. Danitol + Lorsban was the best knock-down treatment evaluated, but for sustained control, Esteem appeared to be most effective. Applaud demonstrated good activity, but the rate we tested may be a little low; the 1.0 lb/ac rate should be evaluated. Provado at 19 oz/ac was a good treatment, while the 10 oz/ac rate appears to be sub-par. Prev-am is a oil based contact material and demonstrated good initial activity. Soil injections of 16 and 32 oz/ac of Admire were very effective against WWF, and there were no detectable differences between the two rates. Previous experiments with soil injections of Admire in citrus suggested that as much as six weeks needs to pass before the trees have enough time to adequately take up the Admire from the soil. However, these data suggest that smaller trees, about 10 ft tall, may require as little as two weeks to pick up the material.
    • Chemical Control and Integrated Pest Management of Woolly Whitefly

      Kerns, David L.; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2007-10)
      Eight foliar insecticide treatment regimes (single applications of Esteem, Danitol + Lorsban, Applaud, Provado and Prev-am, and two applications of Applaud, Provado, and Prev-Am) were evaluated for management of woolly whitefly infestations in grapefruit. All of these products demonstrated efficacy in mitigating woolly whitefly populations. Danitol + Lorsban appeared to be the best knock-down treatment evaluated, but Provado and Prev-Am also demonstrated good activity. For sustained control, all of the treatments were effective; however, Prev-Am required an additional application to achieve equivalent control. Soil injections of 16 and 32 fl-oz/ac of Admire were very effective against WWF, and there were no detectable differences between the two rates. The Admire appeared to require about 27 days after injection to demonstrate consistent activity.
    • Chemical Control of Citrus Thrips on Lemons in the Low Desert Areas of Arizona

      Kerns, David L.; Maurer, Michael; Langston, Dave; Tellez, Tony; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-11)
      Insecticides were evaluated for their efficacy to citrus mealybugs on lemons at three spray gallonages, 60, 240, and 600 gallons per acre. None of the products tested exhibited any activity at 60 or 240 gallons per acre. At 600 gallons per acre, Lorsban at 6 qt/A + NR-415 oil at 1.4% v/v, Supracide at 2 pt /100 gal + Kinetic at 0.25% v/v, and Applaud at 2.0 lbs -ai/A + NR -415 oil at 1.4% v/v all demonstrated the best activity. Provado at 0.1 lbs-ai/A + NR-415 oil at 1.4 %, Danitol at 0.4 lbs-ai/A + Lorsban at 4 qt/A + NR-415 oil at 1.4% v/v, and Nexter at 0.3 lbs-ai/A + NR-415 oil at 1.4% v/v showed good activity. Weaker treatments included Agri-Mek at 10 and 20 oz/A, Knack and Difenolan. For maximum control, growers should treat before the fruit is heavily infested, and use high gallonages of spray solution at a high pressure, the spray must penetrate the waxy coating to achieve activity. If applicable, a spray oil should be included to help break up the wax. However, if Supracide is used, use a high rate without oil.
    • Chemical Freeze Protection of Citrus 1987/1988

      Butler, M.; Brown, P.; Fallahi, E.; Butler, Marvin (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1988-12)
      Research has shown that the presence of ice-nucleation-active (INA) bacteria, such as Pseudomonas syringae and Erwinia herbicola, will result in ice formation several degrees centigrade higher than would otherwise occur. Seven possible chemical frost protectants were applied to Lisbon lemons of the Yuma Mesa Ag Center. Four replications of effectiveness of the materials were evaluated by determining tip bum and fruit damage following two subfreezing episodes in December 1987. There were no statistically significant differences between treatments under the conditions of this study.
    • Chemical Freeze Protection of Citrus 1988/1989

      Butler, Marvin; Brown, Paul; Butler, Marvin (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1991-01)
      Five chemical frost protectants and a water treatment were applied to Lisbon lemons by dipping branches to insure complete coverage. A constant temperature bath was used to determine the effect of chemical frost protectants on the freezing temperature for leaf samples placed in test tubes with 10 ml of distilled water. Although the relative temperature at which the different treatments froze remained fairly constant, the differences were not significant.