• Results of Scion and Rootstock Trials for Citrus in Arizona - 1997

      Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike; Department of Plant Sciences, Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-09)
      Five rootstocks, 'Carrizo' citrange, Citrus macrophylla, Rough lemon, Swingle citrumelo and Citrus volkameriana were selected for evaluation using 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' as the scion. Early results indicate that trees on C. volkameriana and C. macrophylla are superior to those on other rootstocks in both growth and yield. 'Swingle' and Carrizo' are performing poorly. In a similar trial, Four 'Lisbon' lemon selections, 'Frost Nucellar', 'Corona Foothills', 'Limoneira 8A' and 'Prior' from the University of Arizona Citrus Budwood Certification plot were selected for evaluation on Citrus volkameriana rootstock. Early results indicate that the 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' selection is outperforming the other selections in both growth and yield. Preliminary results from another lemon cultivar trial and a navel orange cultivar trial are presented as well.
    • Results of scion and rootstock trials for citrus in Arizona - 1998

      Wright, Glenn C.; Tilt, Philip A.; Peña, Marco A.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike; Dept. Plant Sciences, U. of A., Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center, Yuma, Arizona (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-11)
      Five rootstocks, 'Carrizo' citrange, Citrus macrophylla, Rough lemon, Swingle citrumelo and Citrus volkameriana were selected for evaluation using 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' as the scion. 1998-99 results indicate that trees on C. macrophylla and C. volkameriana are superior to those on other rootstocks in both growth and yield. C. macrophylla is beginning to outperform C. volkameriana. 'Swingle’ and Carrizo' are performing poorly. In a similar trial, Four 'Lisbon' lemon selections, 'Frost Nucellar', 'Corona Foothills', 'Limoneira 8A' and 'Prior' were selected for evaluation on Citrus volkameriana rootstock. 1998-99 results indicate that the 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' selection is superior, and that ‘Corona Foothills Lisbon’ may also be superior to the other selections in both growth and yield. Results from another lemon cultivar trial suggest that 'Cavers Lisbon', 'Limonero Fino 49' and 'Villafranca’ lemons may be good candidates for plantings as well. Results from two other lemon scion trials, a navel orange cultivar trial and a 'Valencia' orange trial are presented as well.
    • Results of Scion and Rootstock Trials for Citrus in Arizona - 2000

      Wright, Glenn C.; Peña, Marco A.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike; Department of Plant Sciences, U. of A., Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-02)
      Five rootstocks, 'Carrizo' citrange, Citrus macrophylla, Rough lemon, Swingle citrumelo and Citrus volkameriana were selected for evaluation using 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' as the scion. 1994-2000 results indicate that trees on C. macrophylla and C. volkameriana are superior to those on other rootstocks in both growth and yield. C. macrophylla is outperforming C. volkameriana. Rough lemon is intermediate, and 'Swingle' and Carrizo’ are performing poorly. For 2000-01, rough lemon trees performed similarly to C. macrophylla and C. volkameriana. In a similar trial, Four 'Lisbon' lemon selections, 'Frost Nucellar', 'Corona Foothills', 'Limoneira 8A' and 'Prior' were selected for evaluation on Citrus volkameriana rootstock. 1994-2001 results indicate that the 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' and 'Corona Foothills Lisbon' are superior in yield and fruit earliness. Results from another lemon cultivar trial suggest that 'Cavers Lisbon', 'Limonero Fino 49' and 'Villafranca' lemons may be good candidates for plantings as well. Results from three other lemon scion trials, a navel orange cultivar trial and a 'Valencia' orange trial, and a 'Fallglo' mandarin trial are presented as well.
    • Results of Scion and Rootstock Trials for Citrus in Arizona -- 1999

      Wright, Glenn C.; Peña, Marco A.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike; Department of Plant Sciences, U. of A., Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-10)
      Five rootstocks, 'Carrizo' citrange, Citrus macrophylla, Rough lemon, Swingle citrumelo and Citrus volkameriana were selected for evaluation using 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' as the scion. 1999-2000 results indicate that trees on C. macrophylla and C. volkameriana are superior to those on other rootstocks in both growth and yield. C. macrophylla is outperforming C. volkameriana. Rough lemon is intermediate, and 'Swingle' and Carrizo’ are performing poorly. In a similar trial, Four 'Lisbon' lemon selections, 'Frost Nucellar', 'Corona Foothills', 'Limoneira 8A' and 'Prior' were selected for evaluation on Citrus volkameriana rootstock. 1998-99 results indicate that the 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' and 'Corona Foothills Lisbon' are superior in yield and fruit earliness. Results from another lemon cultivar trial suggest that 'Cavers Lisbon', 'Limonero Fino 49' and 'Villafranca' lemons may be good candidates for plantings as well. Results from two other lemon scion trials, a navel orange cultivar trial and a 'Valencia' orange trial, and a mandarin trial are presented as well.
    • Revitalizing "Wichita" Pecan Productivity Through Corrective Pruning - First Year Results

      Gibson, Richard; Kilby, Michael; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-09)
      A pruning study was established in stressed pecan trees to identify effective means of returning unproductive trees to full productivity. The study was comprised of two pruning systems and one untreated check. The number of nuts harvested from pruned trees was lower than that harvested from the unpruned trees, but the quality of the nuts from the pruned trees was improved when compared with the unpruned trees.
    • Root and Crown Rot of Apple Trees Caused by Phytophthora

      Matheron, Michael; Young, Deborah; Matejka, Joe; Kilby, Michael W.; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-12)
    • Scheduling Apple Irrigations with Infrared Thermometers

      Young, Deborah; Garrot, Don; Owen, Claire; Kilby, Michael W.; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-12)
    • Seasonal Abundance and Field Testing of a Citrus Thrips Temperature Development Model in Arizona Citrus

      Rethwisch, Michael D.; McDaniel, Charles; Peralia, Manuel; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-09)
      Citrus thrips populations (adults and nymphs) were monitored through the spring of 1991-1992 in several locations throughout most of the commercial citrus production areas in Yuma County to determine if citrus thrips seasonality was similar to that previously reported in California. Study findings indicate that seasonality is similar throughout the winter and very early spring. Adult thrips numbers increase rapidly in groves due to attractive foliage, whether it is weeds or citrus. High nymph numbers did not always follow adult peaks, and were not statistically correlated. Predatory mites and rains may have affected 1992 results.
    • Seasonal Changes in Extent of Colonization of Citrus Root Tissue by Phytophthora citrophthora and P. parasitica

      Matheron, M.; Matejka, J.; Butler, Marvin (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1991-01)
      For 24 consecutive months, root pieces were collected from field -grown Lisbon lemon trees established on Citrus aurantium (sour orange), C. jambhiri (rough lemon), and C. volkameriana rootstocks. Root segments were wounded, inoculated with Phytophthora citrophthora or P. parasitica, and incubated for 96 hr in moist chambers. Smaller lesions developed during Jan -Feb than during Jul-Oct on root pieces of all tested rootstocks inoculated with P. citrophthora as well as root pieces of C aurantium inoculated with P. parasitica. Apparently there is a seasonal variation in the susceptibility of citrus rootstocks to colonization by Phytophthora. This information could be useful for more effective timing of fungicide applications.
    • Seasonal Nutrient Content of Pistachio Leaves in Arizona

      Kilby, Michael W.; Kilby, Michael W.; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-12)
    • Seasonal Variation in Susceptibility of Citrus Rootstocks to Phytophthora

      Matheron, Mike; Matejka, Joe (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-12)
      Phytophthora parasitica and P. citrophthora are routinely recovered from diseased citrus groves in Arizona. Stem sections were collected monthly from Citrus macrophylla, rough lemon, .sour orange, Cleopatra mandarin, Troyer citrange and Citrus volkameriana. Stem pieces were wounded, inoculated with mycelium of P. parasitica or P. citrophthora, then incubated for 7 days at 21° C in moist chambers. For all tested rootstocks, the smallest cankers were produced on tissue collected in December, January and February, the winter dormancy period for citrus in Arizona. The period of higher susceptibility ranged between March through November, depending on the rootstock tested. Apparently, these six citrus rootstocks possess seasonal differences in their susceptibility to P. parasitica and P. citrophthora.
    • Selections of Blood Oranges for Arizona Growers

      McDonald, H. H.; Fallahi, E.; Butler, Marvin (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1988-12)
      Interest in growing blood oranges in Arizona has been increasing in recent years, especially for producing fruit for sale in roadside stands. The Arizona Cooperative Citrus Registration Certification Program now has four selections from which to choose: 'Moro', 'Tarocco', 'Sanguinelli', and 'Ruby'. Each one has distinct advantages and disadvantages that should be considered before making a selection.
    • Sodium Tetrathiocarbonate - Potential New Fungicide for Control of Phytophthora in Citrus Groves

      Matheron, M.; Matejka, J.; Butler, Marvin (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1988-12)
      Sodium tetrathiocarbonate (STTC) releases carbon disulfide when added to water and applied to soil. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the effect of this chemical on growth and sporulation of Phytophthora citrophthora and P. parasitica, which cause Phytophthora gummosis and mot rot of citrus in Arizona Zoospore motility, zoospore cyst viability, sporangia production, and mycelia' growth were significantly reduced in the presence of STTC Results of laboratory tests suggest that application of S7TC as a soil drench could reduce inoculum production and subsequent new infections by P. citrophthora and P. parasitica.
    • Studies of the Biology and Control of Brown Heartwood Rot on Lemon Trees in 2000

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike; University of Arizona, Yuma Agricultural Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-02)
      Brown heartwood rot is commonly found in mature lemon groves in southwestern Arizona. Two basidiomycete fungi, Antrodia sinuosa and Coniophora eremophila, have been isolated from symptomatic trees. Similarities between the two pathogens include the following: each fungus grows optimally at 30 to 35°C, neither organism produces a fleshy fruiting body, they colonize lemon trees primarily through branch fractures and other non-pruning wounds, and both cause a brown wood rot in infected trees. A major difference between the two pathogens is that Antrodia forms spore-producing fruiting bodies on infected wood within lemon groves, whereas fruiting on lemon wood infected by Coniophora has not been observed. The rate of wood decay in lemon branches inoculated with Antrodia is at least three times greater than that caused by Coniophora. Wood decay columns produced by either fungus from late spring to early autumn were at least three times larger than those that developed from late autumn to early spring. When inoculated with either pathogen, the length of wood decay columns on branches 10 mm in diameter was numerically smaller than those on branches 20 and 40 mm in diameter. Wood decay on Lisbon lemon branches inoculated with either Antrodia or Coniophora was significantly greater than that on Marsh grapefruit, Orlando tangelo, and Valencia orange. Treatment of lemon branch inoculation sites with azoxystrobin or propiconazole at 20 g of active ingredient per liter of solution reduced the resultant length of wood decay columns by 61 and 77%, respectively, for Antrodia, and 92 and 85%, respectively, for Coniophora. When selected desert plants were inoculated, Antrodia produced wood decay columns on Palo Verde, salt cedar, greasewood, and mesquite branches that were much shorter than those recorded on Lisbon lemon branches. On the other hand, Coniophora produced longer wood decay columns on salt cedar and mesquite than on Lisbon lemon, whereas wood rot on lemon was greater than that on Palo Verde and greasewood. Current disease management strategies include minimizing branch fractures and other non-pruning wounds, and periodic inspection of trees and removal of infected branches, including physical removal of all wood infected with Antrodia from the grove site.
    • Studies on Stubborn Disease and its Vector in Arizona Citrus Groves and Nurseries

      Oldfield, George N.; Creamer, Rebecca; Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-11)
      Seasonal flight of beet leafhopper vectors of stubborn disease was monitored at wholesale nurseries in Yuma County, and at young citrus groves in Maricopa County using yellow sticky traps exposed at successive two-week intervals. Trapped leafhoppers were removed and assayed for presence of the citrus stubborn agent by PCR. Leafhoppers were collected live from weed plants in groves and nurseries using an insect vacuum and both leafhoppers and tissue from weed plants were assayed by PCR for the stubborn agent. Selected trees in groves in Yuma and Maricopa Counties were visually inspected for stubborn symptoms.
    • Susceptibility of Lemons to Citrus Thrips Scarring Based on Fruit Size

      Kerns, David L.; Tellez, Tony; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-09)
      Lemons appear to be most susceptible to damage by citrus thrips from petal fall until they reach 1.0 inch in diameter. Correlation analysis suggests that fruit greater than 1.0 inch in diameter may not be highly susceptible to thrips scarring and thus may not require protection. 1f this relationship can be verged with additional data, late- season thrips sprays may be avoided.
    • Tank Mixing Success for Citrus Thrips Control is Not Necessary

      Kerns, David L.; Tellez, Tony; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-10)
      A small plot efficacy trial was conducted evaluating thrips control with Dimethoate, Baythroid, and Success at rates of 4, 6, and 9 oz/ac, and tank mixes of the low and medium rates of Success with Dimethoate or Baythroid. Based on a 10% fruit infestation threshold, Dimethoate required three applications while the other treatments required two applications to achieve season long thrips control. However, when evaluating the treatments based on a cost effectiveness index, none of the tank mixes or Success at 9 oz./ac were economically advisable. The most cost effective treatment was Success at 4 oz/ac, followed by Success at 6 oz/ac, Dimethoate, and Baythroid.
    • Trunk Application of Phosphorous Acid and Two Other Fungicides for Control of Phytophtora Gummosis of Citrus

      Matheron, Mike; Matejka, Joe (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-12)
      Gummosis caused by Phytophthora parasitica and P. citrophthora is a serious problem in Arizona citrus groves. In a 15-year-old Orlando tangelo planting at the Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center, a 20 cm section of trunk on each tree was painted with phosphorous acid, metalaxyl or fosetyl-Al. After treatment, pieces of bark were periodically removed from within, as well as below, the treated area and inoculated with P. parasitica and P. citrophthora. After 117 days, both Phytophthora species were inhibited on bark treated with phosphorous acid, metalaxyl or fosetyl-Al. Canker development was also reduced on bark tissue sampled 10 cm below the site of treatment. The results suggest that trunk application of phosphorous acid, metalaxyl or fosetyl-Al can provide effective protection against Phytophthora gummosis of citrus.
    • Update on Fuller's Rose Beetle in Arizona

      Rethwisch, M. D.; Sumner, C.; Butler, Marvin (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1988-12)
      Initial studies of Fuller rose beetle (FRB) biology have found some adult emergence in late June and early July. No adults woe found in foliage in May or early June, nor was activity noted in August and early September. FRB were not found in early October, but they began expected major emergence in mid-October. Several FRB collected did not have fused wings, atypical for this species. This finding suggests flight ability in FRB, currently unknown to occur.
    • Use of a Slow Release Triazone-Based Nitrogen Fertilizer on Lemon Trees

      Wright, Glenn C.; Peña, Marco A.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike; Department of Plant Sciences, U. of A., Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-10)
      Trisert CB replaced conventional foliar applied low-biuret urea and liquid urea ammonium nitrate in a typical N fertilization regime, a urea triazone based N source. There was no yield decrease, change in fruit size or grade with the use of the Trisert CB. There were no differences in leaf P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn or Zn concentration. Occasionally, leaf N concentration of trees supplied with foliar applied Trisert CB was higher than that of the control treatment.