• Lemon Rootstock Trials in Arizona - 2001-02

      Wright, Glenn C.; Peña, Marco; Wright, Glenn; Gibson, Rick; Department of Plant Sciences, U. of A., Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-11)
      In a rootstock evaluation trial planted in 1993, five rootstocks, 'Carrizo' citrange, Citrus macrophylla, 'Rough Lemon', Swingle citrumelo and Citrus volkameriana were selected for evaluation using 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' as the scion. 1994-2002 yield and packout results indicate that trees on C. macrophylla, C. volkameriana and 'Rough Lemon' are superior to those on other rootstocks in both growth and yield. C. macrophylla is outperforming C. volkameriana. For the second year in a row, 'Rough Lemon' trees performed similarly to C. macrophylla and better than C. volkameriana. 'Swingle' and 'Carrizo' are performing poorly. In two other rootstock evaluation trials, both planted in 1995, C. macrophylla and/or C. volkameriana are outperforming other trifoliate and trifoliate-hybrid rootstocks under test.
    • Lemon Rootstock Trials in Arizona - 2006-07

      Wright, Glenn C.; Peña, Marco A.; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2007-10)
      In a rootstock evaluation trial planted in 1993, five rootstocks, 'Carrizo' citrange, Citrus macrophylla, 'Rough Lemon', Swingle citrumelo and Citrus volkameriana were selected for evaluation using 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' as the scion. 1994-2006 yield and packout results indicate that trees on C. macrophylla, C. volkameriana and ‘Rough Lemon’ are superior to those on other rootstocks in both growth and yield. C. macrophylla does not consistently outperform C. volkameriana. 'Swingle' and Carrizo’ are performing poorly.
    • Lemon Rootstock Trials in Arizona – 2002-03

      Wright, Glenn C.; Peña, Marco A.; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences, U. of A.; Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2003)
      In a rootstock evaluation trial planted in 1993, five rootstocks, ‘Carrizo’ citrange, Citrus macrophylla, ‘Rough Lemon’, Swingle citrumelo and Citrus volkameriana were selected for evaluation using 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' as the scion. 1994-2002 yield and packout results indicate that trees on C. macrophylla, C. volkameriana and ‘Rough Lemon’ are superior to those on other rootstocks in both growth and yield. C. macrophylla is outperforming C. volkameriana. For the second year in a row, ‘Rough Lemon’ trees performed similarly to C. macrophylla and better than C. volkameriana. ‘Swingle’ and Carrizo’ are performing poorly. In two other rootstock evaluation trials, both planted in 1995, C. macrophylla and/or C. volkameriana are outperforming other trifoliate and trifoliate-hybrid rootstocks under test.
    • Lemon Rootstock Trials in Arizona – 2004-05

      Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona; Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (2004)
      In a rootstock evaluation trial planted in 1993, five rootstocks, ‘Carrizo’ citrange, Citrus macrophylla, ‘Rough Lemon’, Swingle citrumelo and Citrus volkameriana were selected for evaluation using 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' as the scion. 1994-2004 yield and packout results indicate that trees on C. macrophylla, C. volkameriana and ‘Rough Lemon’ are superior to those on other rootstocks in both growth and yield. C. macrophylla is outperforming C. volkameriana. For the second year in a row, ‘Rough Lemon’ trees performed similarly to C. macrophylla and better than C. volkameriana. ‘Swingle’ and Carrizo’ are performing poorly. In two other rootstock evaluation trials, both planted in 1995, C. macrophylla and/or C. volkameriana are outperforming other trifoliate and trifoliate-hybrid rootstocks under test.
    • Lemon Rootstock Trials in Arizona – 2005-06

      Wright, Glenn C.; Peña, Marco A.; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona; Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2005)
      In a rootstock evaluation trial planted in 1993, five rootstocks, ‘Carrizo’ citrange, Citrus macrophylla, ‘Rough Lemon’, Swingle citrumelo and Citrus volkameriana were selected for evaluation using 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' as the scion. 1994-2005 yield and packout results indicate that trees on C. macrophylla, C. volkameriana and ‘Rough Lemon’ are superior to those on other rootstocks in both growth and yield. C. macrophylla is no longer outperforming C. volkameriana. ‘Swingle’ and Carrizo’ are performing poorly.
    • 'Lisbon' Lemon Selection Trials in Arizona - 2006-07

      Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences, U. of A., Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2007-10)
      Four 'Lisbon' lemon selections, 'Frost Nucellar', 'Corona Foothills', 'Limoneira 8A' and 'Prior' were selected for evaluation on Citrus volkameriana rootstock. Yield was extremely low for 2006-07, but these results do not change the fact that that 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' and 'Corona Foothills Lisbon' are superior to the other two selections tested.
    • ‘Lisbon’ Lemon Selection Trials in Arizona – 2004-05

      Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona; Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004)
      Four 'Lisbon' lemon selections, 'Frost Nucellar', 'Corona Foothills', 'Limoneira 8A' and 'Prior' were selected for evaluation on Citrus volkameriana rootstock. 2004-05 results indicate that the 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' and ‘Corona Foothills Lisbon’
    • ‘Lisbon’ Lemon Selection Trials in Arizona – 2005-06

      Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona; Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2005)
      Four 'Lisbon' lemon selections, 'Frost Nucellar', 'Corona Foothills', 'Limoneira 8A' and 'Prior' were selected for evaluation on Citrus volkameriana rootstock. 2005-06 results indicate that the 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' and ‘Corona Foothills Lisbon’ are superior to the other two selections tested.
    • Managing Vegetation on the Orchard Floor in Flood Irrigated Arizona Citrus Groves

      McCloskey, William B.; Wright, Glenn C.; Taylor, Kathryn C.; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences; Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-11)
      Several orchard floor management strategies were evaluated beginning in the fall of 1993 in experiments on the Yuma Mesa in a 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' lemon grove and in a 'Valencia' orange grove at the University of Arizona Citrus Agricultural Center (CAC) in Waddell, Arizona. On the Yuma Mesa, disking provided satisfactory weed control except underneath the tree canopies where bermudagrass, purple nutsedge, and other weed species survived. Mowing the orchard floor suppressed broadleaf weed species allowing the spread of grasses, primarily bermudagrass. Pre-emergence (Solicam and Surffan) and post-emergence (Roundup and Torpedo) herbicides were used to control weeds in the clean culture treatment in Yuma. After three harvest seasons (1994-95 through 1996-97), the clean culture treatment resulted in greater yield than the other treatments. At the CAC, clean culture (in this location no pre -emergence herbicides were used,) mowed resident weeds, and Salina strawberry clover orchard floor management schemes were compared. Again the clean culture treatment yielded more than the mowed resident weeds. The yield of the strawberry clover treatment was somewhat less than the clean culture yield but not significantly less. The presence of cover crops or weeds on the orchard floor were found to have beneficial effects on soil nitrogen and soil organic matter content, but no effect on citrus leaf nutrient content. The decrease in yield in the mowed resident weed treatments compared to the clean culture treatment in both locations was attributed to competition for water.
    • Managing Vegetation on the Orchard Floor in Flood Irrigated Arizona Citrus Groves

      McCloskey, William B.; Wright, Glenn C.; Taylor, Kathryn C.; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-09)
      Several orchard floor management strategies were evaluated beginning in the fall of 1993 in experiments on the Yuma Mesa in a Limoneira 8A Lisbon lemon grove and in a Valencia orange grove at the University of Arizona Citrus Agricultural Center (CAC) in Waddell, Arizona. On the Yuma Mesa, disking provided satisfactory weed control except underneath the tree canopies where bermudagrass, purple nutsedge, and other weed species survived. Mowing the orchard floor suppressed broadleaf weed species allowing the spread of grasses, primarily bermudagrass. Preemergence (Solicam and Surflan) and postemergence (Roundup and Torpedo) herbicides were used to control weeds in the clean culture treatment in Yuma. After two harvest seasons (1994-95 and 1995-96), the clean culture treatment resulted in greater yield than the other treatments. At the CAC, clean culture (in this location no preemergence herbicides were used), mowed resident weeds, and Salina strawberry clover orchard floor management schemes were compared. Again the clean culture treatment yielded more than the mowed resident weeds. The yield of the strawberry clover treatment was somewhat less than the clean culture yield but not significantly less. The presence of cover crops or weeds on the orchard floor were found to modulate tree canopy temperatures, and to have beneficial effects on soil nitrogen and soil organic matter content, but no effect on citrus leaf nutrient content. The decrease in yield in the mowed resident weed treatments compared to the clean culture treatment in both locations was attributed to competition for water.
    • Mandarin Selection Trials in Arizona - 2004-05

      Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004)
      First year yield and packout data from a trial containing 'Fina', 'Fina Sodea', 'Sidi Aissa', 'Oroval', 'W. Murcott Afourer', 'Fremont', and 'Gold Nugget; selections were collected in 2004-05. For the year, 'Fremont' had the greatest yield, but the smallest fruit size, while 'Fina' had the smallest yield, and 'W. Murcott Afourer' had the largest fruit size.
    • Mandarin Selection Trials in Arizona - 2006-07

      Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2007-10)
      Third year yield and packout data from a trial containing 'Fina', 'Fina Sodea', 'Sidi Aissa', 'Oroval', 'W. Murcott Afourer', 'Fremont', and 'Gold Nugget' selections were collected in 2006-07. For the year, 'Fina Sodea' had the greatest yield, and average fruit size, while 'Gold Nugget' had the smallest yield, and ‘Fremont’ had the smallest fruit size.
    • Mandarin Selection Trials in Arizona – 2005-06

      Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona; Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2005)
      Second year yield and packout data from a trial containing ‘Fina’, ‘Fina Sodea’, ‘Sidi Aissa’, ‘Oroval’, ‘W. Murcott Afourer’, ‘Fremont’, and ‘Gold Nugget; selections were collected in 2004-05. For the year, ‘Fina Sodea’ had the greatest yield, and average fruit size, while ‘Fremont’ had the smallest yield, and the smallest fruit size.
    • Particle Film Technologies: Pest Management and Yield Enhancement Qualities in Lemons

      Kerns, David L.; Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn (2003)
      Surround WP and Snow were evaluated for their ability to manage citrus thrips populations in lemons on the Yuma Mesa, and their impact on lemon yield, fruit quality, and packout. Both Surround and Snow effectively controlled citrus thrips and prevented fruit scarring. Surround produced higher yields than either Snow or the commercial standard at the first harvest (#9 ring). There were no differences in yield among treatments for the second (strip) harvest, nor were their any differences in total yield. These data suggest that Surround may increase fruit earliness or sizing. There were no statistical differences among any of the treatments in fruit size frequency or quality for any of the harvests, and there was no apparent benefit from applying an additional application of Surround or Snow post thrips season solely for quality, fruit size, or yield enhancement. The activity of Surround does not appear to be adversely affected by the inclusion of the insecticides Danitol, Baythroid, Carzol, or Success, nor do these insecticides appear to be adversely affected by Surround. Foliar fertilizers did not appear to adversely affect the activity of Surround when tank mixed. However, there is some evidence that Surround may negatively affect the absorption of Fe and Mn when tank mixed with Zn, Fe, Mn lignosulfonate, but this data is not conclusive. The addition of a non-ionic surfactant appears to enhance the on-leaf distribution of Surround over light petroleum and paraffin based oils, but long term efficacy is not affected.
    • Pest Management and Yield Enhancement Qualities of Particle Film Technologies in Citrus

      Kerns, David L.; Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Gibson, Rick (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-11)
      Surround WP and Snow were evaluated for their ability to manage citrus thrips populations in lemons on the Yuma Mesa, and their impact on lemon yield, fruit quality, and packout. Both Surround and Snow effectively controlled citrus thrips and prevented fruit scarring, but their ability to manage Yuma spider mite was inconclusive. Preference tests indicated that both Surround and Snow act primarily by repelling the thrips, but also induce some mortality. Surround produced higher yields than Snow at the first harvest (#8 ring), but did not differ from the commercial standard. There were no differences in yield among treatments for the strip harvest, nor were their any differences in total yield. These data suggest that Surround may have some yield or increased fruit earliness enhancement qualities and that Snow may be slightly detrimental. There were no statistical differences among any of the treatments in fruit size frequency or quality for any of the harvests, and there was no apparent benefit from applying an additional application of Surround or Snow post thrips season solely for quality, fruit size, or yield enhancement.
    • Pollination of W. Murcott Afourer Mandarins

      Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences, U. of A., Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2007-10)
    • Preliminary Results Regarding the Effects of Foliar Applied Roundup on Lemon Physiology and Yield

      McCloskey, William B.; Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences; Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-11)
      The effect of Roundup on lemon trees was evaluated by repeatedly spraying 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 lb a.i/acre on the bottom 20 to 24 inches of the tree canopies. Leaf injury symptoms, flower and fruit counts, and yield data were collected The Roundup applications caused significant leaf injury in the sprayed area of the canopies and there was significant defoliation of branches at the higher Roundup rates. In 1996, flower and fruitier counts were not affected by the Roundup applications. However, flower and fruitier counts in 1997 in the sprayed zone of the canopy were significantly reduced by Roundup and the effect increased with increasing Roundup rate. The 1996 yield data indicated that the Roundup applications did not significantly affect lemon yield, however, the effect of Roundup on the 1997 flower and fruitier counts suggests that there may be a yield effect in 1997. The preliminary data suggest that accidental drift of Roundup on to lemon trees when spraying weeds on the orchard floor has no short-term effect on grove productivity but this conclusion must be substantiated by further data collection.
    • Protective and Yield Enhancement Qualities of Kaolin on Lemons

      Kerns, David L.; Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-10)
      Kaolin (Surround) was highly effective at preventing citrus thrips populations from reaching damaging levels in Arizona lemons. Applications should be initiated before thrips become numerous. Applying the material before petal fall may offer protection of early set fruit, but may not be necessary if thrips densities are low. However, since kaolin should be applied in advance of thrips populations increase, determining the benefits of pre-petal fall applications of kaolin is difficult. Kaolin applied on a maintenance schedule offers continual suppression of thrips populations, whereas traditional standard insecticides offer temporary population knockdown. Kaolin did not interfere with photosynthesis or stomatal conductance, and may possess yield enhancement qualities.
    • Results of 'Fallglo' Trials for Citrus in Arizona - 2001

      Wright, Glenn C.; Peña, Marco; Wright, Glenn; Gibson, Rick; Department of Plant Sciences, U. of A., Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-11)
      A 'Fallglo' mandarin trial was established at the Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center in 1995. Results suggest that trees on C. volkameriana rootstock, rough lemon rootstock, and, in 2001-02, Gou Tou orange rootstock had the greatest yields. There was little effect of rootstock upon fruit size or juice quality.
    • Results of New Cultivar Selection Trials for Lemon in Arizona - 2001

      Wright, Glenn C.; Peña, Marco; Wright, Glenn; Gibson, Rick; Department of Plant Sciences, U. of A., Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-11)
      Three lemon cultivar selection trials are being conducted at the Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center in Somerton, AZ. Data from these trials suggest that 'Cavers Lisbon' and 'Limonero Fino 49' selections may be suitable alternatives for the varieties most commonly planted in Southwest Arizona today.