• Cultivar Selection Trials of Navel Orange in Arizona for 2004-05

      Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona; Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004)
      Two orange cultivar trials have been established in Arizona, one at the Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center, Yuma, AZ and one at the Citrus Agriculture Center, Waddell, AZ. For the navel orange trial in Yuma, all the selections had improved yields in 2004-05. ‘Fisher’ navel continues to have the greatest yield, but is quite granulated. Of the rest in the Yuma trial, ‘Lane Late’ had the best quality and yield. For the Waddell trial, the fourth year data has been collected, and suggests that ‘Fisher’, ‘Beck-Earli’, ‘Chislett’ and ‘Lane Late’ are outperforming the other cultivars tested to date.
    • Web-based IPM Resources for Arizona's Citrus Growers Final Report

      Jones, Jennifer S.; Kerns, David L.; Matheron, Michael E.; McCloskey, William B.; Fournier, Al; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004)
      We proposed creating a user-friendly web site that would provide independent, research-based, integrated pest management information to Arizona’s citrus growers and PCAs. This citrus IPM website, located at http://cals.arizona.edu/crops/citrus/ was created and integrated within an existing web site, the Arizona Crop Information Site (ACIS) http://cals.arizona.edu/crops. The Citrus IPM web site was launched on April 15, 2004.
    • Lemon Rootstock Trials in Arizona – 2004-05

      Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona; Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (2004)
      In a rootstock evaluation trial planted in 1993, five rootstocks, ‘Carrizo’ citrange, Citrus macrophylla, ‘Rough Lemon’, Swingle citrumelo and Citrus volkameriana were selected for evaluation using 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' as the scion. 1994-2004 yield and packout results indicate that trees on C. macrophylla, C. volkameriana and ‘Rough Lemon’ are superior to those on other rootstocks in both growth and yield. C. macrophylla is outperforming C. volkameriana. For the second year in a row, ‘Rough Lemon’ trees performed similarly to C. macrophylla and better than C. volkameriana. ‘Swingle’ and Carrizo’ are performing poorly. In two other rootstock evaluation trials, both planted in 1995, C. macrophylla and/or C. volkameriana are outperforming other trifoliate and trifoliate-hybrid rootstocks under test.
    • Using Feeding Stimulants to Increase Insecticidal Control of Citrus Thrips

      Kerns, David L.; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004)
      Carzol and Success with and without the addition of the feeding stimulants molasses and bee-collected pollen were evaluated for their control of citrus thrips on lemons on the Yuma Mesa. Although normal use rate of Carzol and Success were efficacious toward citrus thrips, the addition of either molasses or pollen to these insecticides as a means of increasing efficacy at low rates was not encouraging. At no point did the feeding stimulants appear to increase the efficacy of the same rate of Carzol when used alone, and it appeared that the additives may have actually decreased the efficacy of Success.
    • Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer Requirements for Young, Bearing Microsprinkler-Irrigated Citrus, 2005 Report

      Thompson, Thomas L.; White, Scott A.; Kusakabe, Ayako; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004)
      Higher nutrient and water use efficiency are possible with microsprinkler-irrigated citrus compared to flood-irrigated citrus. Therefore, new N and P fertilizer recommendations are needed for microsprinkler-irrigated citrus. The objectives of these experiments were to i) determine the effects of N applications on tree growth, fruit yield, fruit and juice quality, and N and P removal in fruit for microsprinkler-irrigated navel oranges; ii) determine the effects of P applications on tree growth, fruit yield, fruit and juice quality, and N and P removal in fruit, and iii) develop Best Management Practices for N and P fertigation of microsprinkler-irrigated citrus. Field experiments were conducted at the University of Arizona Citrus Agricultural Center in separate blocks of 'Newhall' and 'Fukumoto' navel oranges, both on 'Carrizo' rootstock. In each block, ten treatments, consisting of all possible combinations of 5 N rates (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 lb N/tree/yr) and 2 P rates (0, 0.2 lb P/tree/year) were applied to five replicate trees per treatment. Maximum yields of the ‘Newhall' trees were 132 lb fruit/tree at a N rate of 0.5 lb N/tree/yr. Maximum yield of the 'Fukumoto' trees was119 lb fruit/tree at 0.5 lb N/tree/yr. Both varieties maintained appropriate leaf N and P concentrations at the yield-maximizing N rates. Total N in the fruit accounted for about 60 % of the N applied at the yield-maximizing N rates in both varieties. The results confirmed that microsprinklers effectively reduced the amounts of N fertilizer needed while maintaining adequate N status in the trees, with excellent N use efficiency.
    • Response of Lemon to Micronutrient Fertilization

      Sanchez, Charles A.; Wright, Glenn; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004)
      A study was initiated in the spring of 2003 to evaluate the response of lemons to soil and foliar applied micronutrients for two growing season (2003-2005). Soil applied Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu was applied in sulfate form and B as Solubor in shallow holes around the skirt of each tree. Foliar applied micronutrients were all applied as “Metalosate” products. Lemon leaf tissue analyses show marginal levels of Zn, Mn, and Cu throughout the study. In 2003-2004, soil fertilization sometimes increased leaf nutrient composition but there was no effect to foliar fertilization. In 2004-2005, ,leaf B and Zn increased to soil fertilization and leaf Mn and Cu increased to foliar fertilization Overall, there were no significant differences in yield or quality to micronutrient fertilization in either growing season.
    • Integrated Pest Management of Citrus Mealybug

      Kerns, David L.; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004)
      Foliar-applied insecticides and the soil-applied insecticide, Admire, were evaluated for their ability to control citrus mealybug on lemons while having a minimal impact on parasitoids. All of the foliar-applied insecticide exhibited activity towards citrus mealybug. The standard insecticide, Lorsban, performed very well, but since this product is especially harmful to parasitoids it is not considered to have a good fit in IPM programs where parasitoid conservation is emphasized. The currently labeled alternative, Applaud, was an effective treatment and should be considered for citrus mealybug control to avoid destruction of parasitoids. Several experimental insecticides showed promise: NNI-850, NNI-750C and NNI-010. However, NNI-0101 at the lower rate of 0.24 lbs-ai/ac appeared to be weak. The addition of narrow range crop oil, NR-415 at 1.0 gal/ac, appeared to be beneficial for initial mealybug knock-down, especially for the slower acting insecticides such as Applaud. Soil injection of Admire at 16 and 32 oz/ac appeared to have very good activity, but due to variability in the mealybug population, more data should be collected to confirm this finding.
    • Foliar applications of Lo-Biuret Urea and Potassium Phosphite to Navel Orange trees

      Wright, Glenn C.; Peña, Marco; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004)
      This experiment was established in January 2000 in a block of ‘Washington’ navel orange trees at Verde Growers, Stanfield, AZ. Treatments included: normal grower practice, winter low biuret (LB) urea application, summer LB urea application, winter LB urea application plus winter and spring potassium phosphite, winter LB urea application plus summer potassium phosphite, and normal grower practice plus spring potassium phosphite. Each treatment was applied to approximately four acres of trees. For 2000-01, yields ranged from 40 to 45 lbs. per tree, and there was no effect of treatments upon total yield, and only slight effect upon fruit size, grade and quality. For 2001-02, there was a slight effect of treatment upon yield as LB urea led to improved yield, while potassium phosphite led to reduced yield. Normal grower practice was intermediate between these two extremes. For 2002-03, we noted a large increase in yield, however the yield data was lost when the block was inadvertently harvested. For 2005, there was no effect of treatments upon total yield.
    • Results of New Cultivar Selection Trials for Lemon in Arizona - 2002

      Wright, Glenn C.; Peña, Marco A.; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences, U. of A.; Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2003)
      Three lemon cultivar selection trials are being conducted at the Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center in Somerton, AZ. Data from these trials suggest that ‘Limonero Fino 49’ selections may be a suitable alternative for the varieties most commonly planted in Southwest Arizona today. ‘Cavers Lisbon’ and ‘Villafranca’ might also be planted on an experimental basis
    • Mite Control and Damage to Arizona Citrus

      Kerns, David L.; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2003)
      Lemons were left untreated or treated for mites with Danitol (fenpropathrin). Mite populations were estimated and yield and fruit damage was accessed. Yuma spider mite, Eotetranychus yumensis, was the predominate mite species present during the high fruit susceptibility period. Although there was no apparent impact of mites on yield in this study, there was significant fruit damage that could be attributed to Yuma spider mite. The damage appeared as bronzed colored pitting of the fruit peel. Based on damage ratings, the treated plots produced 56% fancy, 34% choice, and 10% fruit grade based on mite damage, whereas the untreated plots produced 47%, 31% and 22% fancy, choice and juice grade fruit respectively. Statistically, the treated plots produce more fancy and less juice fruit, but did not differ in choice fruit. Although the treated areas produced better quality fruit, the amount of damage suffered in those plots was higher than desired. Fruit in the treated plots likely suffered some mite damage before treatments were initiated. In addition to the fruit damage test, a miticide efficacy test targeting Yuma spider mite on lemon was conducted comparing Agri-Mek, Danitol, Kelthane, Microthiol, and Nexter to an untreated check. Agri-Mek, Nexter, and Microthiol offered 14 days of control; although at 6 DAT Agri-Mek and Nexter did not differ from the untreated. Danitol and Kelthane contained fewer mite that the untreated for at least 35 DAT.
    • Response of Micro-Sprinkler Irrigated ‘Lisbon’ lemons to N Rate and Source on a Superstition Sand

      Sanchez, C. A.; Peralta, M.; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2003)
      Much of the citrus produced in southwestern Arizona is grown on sandy soils. Because these soils have a low ion exchange capacity, are highly permeable to water, and are prone to nitrate leaching, achieving efficient N management presents a continuing challenge. Studies were conducted during 1999, 2000, and 2001 to evaluate the response of micro-sprinkler irrigated lemons to N rate (0, 1.8, and 3.6 kg N tree-1 yr-1) and N source (UN32, CAN-17, CN9, and mixed program) on Superstition Sand. Lemon yield increased by N rate during the first and second harvests in 1999, 2000, and 2001. In 1999, yields increased linearly to 3.6 kg N tree-1 yr-1 but in 2000 and 2001 yields were maximized at 1.8 kg N tree-1 yr-1. In 1999 where larger increments of N were applied over a smaller time period relative to the other seasons, UN32 seemed to decrease yields at the highest N rate. There were no significant effects to N source in 2000 and 2001.
    • Lemon Rootstock Trials in Arizona – 2002-03

      Wright, Glenn C.; Peña, Marco A.; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences, U. of A.; Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2003)
      In a rootstock evaluation trial planted in 1993, five rootstocks, ‘Carrizo’ citrange, Citrus macrophylla, ‘Rough Lemon’, Swingle citrumelo and Citrus volkameriana were selected for evaluation using 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' as the scion. 1994-2002 yield and packout results indicate that trees on C. macrophylla, C. volkameriana and ‘Rough Lemon’ are superior to those on other rootstocks in both growth and yield. C. macrophylla is outperforming C. volkameriana. For the second year in a row, ‘Rough Lemon’ trees performed similarly to C. macrophylla and better than C. volkameriana. ‘Swingle’ and Carrizo’ are performing poorly. In two other rootstock evaluation trials, both planted in 1995, C. macrophylla and/or C. volkameriana are outperforming other trifoliate and trifoliate-hybrid rootstocks under test.
    • Control of Early Woolly Whiteflies Infestations with Foliar Insecticides

      Kerns, David L.; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2003)
      Five foliar insecticide treatments (Esteem, Provado, Applaud, Assail, and Danitol + Lorsban) were evaluated for their control of early woolly whitefly infestations in lemons. Esteem and Applaud are insect growth regulators that should have little impact on whitefly parasitoids. The impact of Provado and Assail on whitefly parasitoids is not certain, but at high rates may be detrimental, while Danitol + Lorsban will be especially harmful to parasitoids. The impact of these insecticides on woolly whitefly could not be fully determined in this trial due to the effectiveness of parasitoids, Eretmocerus comperei or E. dozieri (exact species not certain), on controlling the whiteflies in this test. However, other research (not reported here) has indicated that all of the insecticide treatments evaluated have good activity against woolly whitefly. Because parasitoids can be extremely effective in mitigating woolly whiteflies populations during the early phases of colonization, it is recommended that chemical control not be utilized until woolly whitefly colonies are common. However, previous experiences suggest that allowing woolly whitefly populations develop extremely high populations should be avoided.
    • Characterization of Alternaria isolates associated with Alternaria Rot of Citrus

      Pryor, Barry; Matheron, Mike; Figuli, Patricia; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2003)
      Alternaria rot of citrus is a serious problem in citrus production world wide. In Arizona, the disease is most commonly found in Minneola tangelos and navel oranges grown in Maricopa County. Alternaria rot occurs primarily as a stem-end rot on fruit held in cold storage. However, under optimum conditions the disease occurs as a stylar-end rot in the orchards. In Arizona, the disease can significantly reduce yield, and annual fruit losses have been estimated at 0.5 box per tree. In terms of fruit quality, this disease can be a serious problem for the fresh fruit market as well as for the processing industry because only a small amount of rot imparts a bitter flavor and small black fragments of rotted tissue spoil the appearance of the juice. The application of fungicides is the most common tactic used to reduce losses to this disease. However, to date, no consistent reduction in disease has been achieved through chemical applications. This suggests that additional information relating to the biology of the pathogen and the epidemiology of disease will be necessary for the successful development of a reliable disease management program.
    • Established ‘Lisbon’ Lemon Trials in Arizona – 2002-03

      Wright, Glenn C.; Peña, Marco A.; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences, U. of A.; Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2003)
      Four 'Lisbon' lemon selections, 'Frost Nucellar', 'Corona Foothills', 'Limoneira 8A' and 'Prior' were selected for evaluation on Citrus volkameriana rootstock. 1994-2002 results indicate that the 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' and ‘Corona Foothills Lisbon’ are superior in yield and fruit size. Results for 2002-03 indicate that these cultivars as well as ‘Frost Nucellar’ have superior yield.
    • Foliar applications of Lo-Biuret Urea and Potassium Phosphite to Navel Orange trees

      Wright, Glenn C.; Peña, Marco; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2003)
      This experiment was established in January 2000 in a block of ‘Washington’ navel orange trees at Verde Growers, Stanfield, AZ. Treatments included: normal grower practice, winter low biuret (LB) urea application, summer LB urea application, winter LB urea application plus winter and spring potassium phosphite, winter LB urea application plus summer potassium phosphite, and normal grower practice plus spring potassium phosphite. Each treatment was applied to approximately four acres of trees. For 2000-01, yields ranged from 40 to 45 lbs. per tree, and there was no effect of treatments upon total yield, and only slight effect upon fruit size, grade and quality. For 2001-02, there was a slight effect of treatment upon yield as LB urea led to improved yield, while potassium phosphite led to reduced yield. Normal grower practice was intermediate between these two extremes. For 2002-03, we noted a large increase in yield, however the yield data was lost when the block was inadvertently harvested.
    • Effect of Organic Amendments on Lemon Leaf Tissue, Soil Analysis and Yield

      Zerkoune, Mohammed; Wright, Glenn; Kerns, David; Wright, Glenn; University of Arizona Cooperative Extension (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2003)
      An experiment was initiated in 2000 to study the feasibility of growing organic lemons in the southwest desert of Arizona. An eight-acre field was selected on Superstition sandy soil at the Mesa Agricultural Research Center to conduct this investigation. Lemon trees were planted at 25 x 25 feet spacing in 1998. The initial soil test in top 6 inches was 5 ppm nitrate-nitrogen and 4.9 ppm NaHCO3-P. Soil pH was 8.7 in the top 6 inches. Four treatments were applied in randomized complete block design repeated four times. The treatments were beef cattle feedlot manure and perfecta, clover and guano from 2000 to 2002, cowpea and guano in 2003, and guano and perfecta, and standard practice treatment. Soil samples were collected from 0-6 and 6-12 inches the first week of March 2003 and analyzed for available nutrients. Results showed a difference for most nutrients in 0 to 6 and 6 to 12 inches between treatments. Nitrate- nitrogen increased significantly from 3.25 ppm in standard treatment to 19.10 ppm in the manure treatment. Similarly, soil organic matter increased from 0.1% in standard treatment to 0.2% in the manure perfecta treatment. Phosphorus level increased significantly from 7 ppm in guano perfecta to 56.5 ppm in manure perfecta treatment. Leaf tissue analysis indicated that nitrate level was influenced by treatment. Both commercial standard and organic treatments were equally effective in controlling citrus thrips, but repeated applications were required. Mite population has been detected at low level with no significant differences observed among treatments.
    • Results of New Cultivar Selection Trials for Orange in Arizona - 2003

      Wright, Glenn C.; Peña, Marco A.; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences, U. of A.; Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2003)
      Three orange cultivar trials have been established in Arizona, one at the Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center, Yuma, AZ and one at the Citrus Agriculture Center, Waddell, AZ. For the navel orange trial in Yuma, ‘Fisher’ navel continues to have the greatest yield, but is unacceptably granulated For the Waddell trial, the second year data has been collected, and suggests that ‘Fisher’ and ‘Beck- Earli’ are outperforming the other cultivars tested to date.
    • Continued Evaluation of N Fertilization Practices for Surface Irrigated Lemons

      Sanchez, Charles A.; Wright, Glenn C.; Peralta, Manuel; Wright, Glenn; Yuma Agricultural Center (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2003)
      Much of the citrus produced in southwestern Arizona is grown on sandy soils. Because these soils have a low ion exchange capacity, are highly permeable to water, and are prone to nitrate leaching, achieving efficient N management presents a continuing challenge. A field study was conducted on a superstition sand to evaluate the response of lemons to combinations of soil and foliar applied N. Lemon yields significantly increased by soil applied N. Foliar N increased yields of lemons the first harvest at the lower soil N rates. However, there were no other significant responses to foliar N. Overall, there were few meaningful changes in fruit quality to N fertilization. The N content of the leaves increased linearly to soil N application
    • Citrus Orchard Floor Management 2001-2003: Comparison of a Disk, “Perfecta” Cultivator, and Weed Sensing Sprayer

      Rector, Ryan J.; McCloskey, William B.; Wright, Glenn C.; Sumner, Chris; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; Department of Plant Sciences, Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center, University of Arizona, Yuma, Arizona; Yuma County Pest Abatement District, Yuma, Arizona (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2003)
      An optical weed sensing sprayer (WeedSeeker) was evaluated for making postemergence glyphosate herbicide applications in a Yuma, AZ lemon orchard. In addition, mechanical (disk and Perfecta cultivator) and chemical weed control strategies were compared. Results were fairly similar; however, the use of the WeedSeeker units combined with a preemergence herbicide (H1) increased weed control three fold compared to disking (D) and perfecta (P1). Additionally, when the WeedSeeker units were used in conjunction with preemergence herbicides, spray volume was reduced by 66% compared to a conventional sprayer and by 57% when used for postemergence applications only. There was a relationship between weed ground cover and the area sprayed by the WeedSeeker units indicating that maximum postemergence herbicide savings will occur at low weed densities or less than 10% groundcover. The use of a sprayer with an improved suspension system allowed for faster spraying speeds than were possible with the tractor mounted sprayer. Weed control was similar for the conventional and the WeedSeeker sprayer. However, yields were variable for both years. Future investigations will include efforts to develop crop budgets based on experimental operations