• Nutritional Status of Wine Grap Cultivars Grown in Southern Arizona

      Kilby, Michael W.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-09)
      Ten winegrape vineyards consisting of different cultivars were leaf petiole sampled at bloomtime. Petioles were analyzed and results composited for the survey. There were indications that boron, iron, nitrogen and phosphorus were nutrients where potential problems (deficiencies) were likely to occur. This survey supplied information for the basis of developing a monitoring program on an annual basis.
    • Organic Lemon Production

      Zerkoune, Mohammed; Wright, Glenn; Kernz, David; McCloskey, William; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-02)
      This experiment was initiated in March 2000 to study the feasibility of growing organic lemon in the desert southwest of Arizona. A ten-acre field planted to lemons in 1998 was selected on Superstition sand at the Yuma Mesa Agricultural Research Center. The initial soil test in top 6 inches was 5 parts per million (ppm) NO₃⁻ and 4.9-PPM NaHCO₃⁻-extractable P. Soil pH was 8.7 in the top 6 inches. Seven treatments were applied in randomized complete block design repeated three times. The treatments were control, compost and clover, compost and perfecta, compost and steam, manure and clover, manure and perfecta and manure and steam Leaf tissue analysis indicated that nitrate level was significantly influenced by treatment. Organic insect control treatments for citrus thrips were as equally effective as the non-organic commercial standards.
    • Pecan Variety Study on the Safford Agricultural Center

      Clark, L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-10)
      In 1986 a replicated study of eight varieties of pecans was planted on the Safford Agricultural Center at an elevation of 2954 feet above sea level. The objective of the study was to determine which varieties would produce best under the saline conditions found in the Safford valley. WO-3, the highest overall producer of the study, produced the best yield in 1999, with a yield over 2600 pounds per acre. This paper also contains kernel percentages and other nut characteristics found in the study during the 1999 harvest seasons and a summary of the yields since 1997.
    • Pecan variety study on the Safford Agricultural Center 1997-1998

      Clark, L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-11)
      In 1986 a replicated study of eight varieties of pecans were planted on the Safford Agricultural Center at an elevation of 2954 feet above sea level. The objective of the study was to determine which varieties would produce best under the saline conditions found in the Safford valley. This paper contains yield, kernel percentages and other nut characteristics found in the study during the 1997 and 1998 harvest seasons. Cheyenne and WO-3 were the highest yielding varieties in 1997 and 1998, respectively. The respective yields were 1894 and 2286 pounds per acre.
    • Pecan yields and nut quality as influenced by soil trenching and tree pruning

      Gibson, Richard; Nunan, Linda; Kilby, Michael; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-11)
      Trenching and pruning applications were placed on mature Wichita pecan trees in Maricopa, Arizona in 1998. Yield and nut quality data from the test are presented. Unfortunately, the cool, favorable growing weather minimized quality degradation during the growing season and confounded the test. Data presented probably do not reflect the true benefits of the treatments.
    • Performance of mature pecan varieties in the low desert 1997 and 1998

      Gibson, Richard; Nunan, Linda; Kilby, Michael; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-11)
      Mature pecan trees at Picacho, Arizona were evaluated for variety performance during 1997-98. Total average yield per tree, percent kernel and percent viviparity were observed. During 1997, a severe viviparity year, only Bradley, Cheyenne, Souix and Tejas showed viviparity values of 20% or lower. Tejas did not return an acceptable percent kernel leaving Bradley, Cheyenne and Souix as potential varieties able to withstand low desert growing conditions on a regular basis. In 1998, the cool growing season confounded the test and no conclusions were drawn from the data.
    • Performance of Mature Pecan Varieties in the Low Desert of Pinal County 1997-1999

      Kilby, Michael; Gibson, Richard; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-10)
      Twelve varieties of pecans were evaluated for yield, viviparity, and nut quality. The commercially recommended varieties 'Western Schley' and 'Wichita' produced the greatest yields but also had the highest percentage of pregermination. The varieties 'Cheyenne' and 'Sioux' exhibit great potential for commercial production in the low desert of Arizona.
    • Population Dynamics of Pecan Aphids and Their Green Lacewing Predators in Insecticide-Free Pecans

      Hunter, Martha; Petersen, Mette; McElween, Melinda; Kilby, Michael; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-10)
      Field surveys of aphids and their natural enemies were conducted in a 30 acre unsprayed block of 'Wichita' pecans in Southeastern Arizona (FICO, Sahuarita) during the growing seasons of 1997, 1998, and 1999. Each season showed a different pattern of aphid population development. In general, numbers of the more damaging black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae were always lower than those of the blackmargined pecan aphid Monellia caryella and no serious aphid damage by either species was observed. Two species of green lacewings were the dominant natural enemies in the orchard, and eggs could be found throughout the season.
    • Potential Use of Esteem for Control of Woolly Whitefly in Citrus

      Kerns, David L.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-02)
      Esteem was evaluated for its efficacy towards woolly whitefly in grapefruit and Minneola tangelos. Esteem was efficacious, but because of spray coverage problems on large trees, failed to offer complete control. Higher rates should be used where infestations are severe, or the trees are large and coverage difficult. Follow-up applications may be necessary to maintain control.
    • Protective and Yield Enhancement Qualities of Kaolin on Lemons

      Kerns, David L.; Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-10)
      Kaolin (Surround) was highly effective at preventing citrus thrips populations from reaching damaging levels in Arizona lemons. Applications should be initiated before thrips become numerous. Applying the material before petal fall may offer protection of early set fruit, but may not be necessary if thrips densities are low. However, since kaolin should be applied in advance of thrips populations increase, determining the benefits of pre-petal fall applications of kaolin is difficult. Kaolin applied on a maintenance schedule offers continual suppression of thrips populations, whereas traditional standard insecticides offer temporary population knockdown. Kaolin did not interfere with photosynthesis or stomatal conductance, and may possess yield enhancement qualities.
    • Pruning Methods Affect Yield and Fruit Quality of 'Merlot' and 'Sauvignon Blanc' Grapevines

      Kilby, Michael W.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-09)
      One red and one white cultivar of winegrapes grown in Southern Arizona was pruned to four different methods. The red cultivar was 'Merlot' and the white was 'Sauvignon Blanc'. The pruning methods were 2 bud spur, 4 bud spur, cane and basal buds only. The basal bud treatment was eliminated for 'Sauvignon Blanc'. The 4 bud spur method resulted in significantly greater yield when compared to the other methods. Fruit produced from the basal bud only treatment resulted in fruit that was significantly greater in pH and acid content. The 'Sauvignon Blanc' cultivar had significantly higher yield with cane pruning with no difference in fruit quality.
    • Rejuvenation of mature pecan trees by pruning

      Kilby, Michael; Gibson, Richard; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-11)
      Neglected mature 'Wichita' pecan trees were rejuvenated using various pruning techniques in 1997. Trees were pruned using proven horticultural techniques which included dehorning (cutting main scaffolds to within 2 feet of trunk) and cutting main scaffolds by 50%. To date the treatments have resulted in an increase in yield when compared to trees that received no pruning. In 1999 the grower has developed an orchard management program conducive to maximum production.
    • Rejuvenation of Neglected, Mature "Wichita" Pecan Trees By Corrective Pruning

      Gibson, Richard; Kilby, Michael; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-02)
      An attempt was made in 1997 to rejuvenate neglected, mature 'Wichita' pecan trees in a commercial Pinal County grove by applying two types of heading back pruning cuts. The treatments were applied during the dormant season prior to the growing season. The trees were pruned using proven horticultural techniques which included dehorning (cutting main scaffolds to within 2 feet of the trunk) and cutting main scaffolds by 50%. After four years of data, the trees receiving no pruning treatments are producing as well or better than trees to which the pruning treatments were applied. The data suggests that a return to normal irrigation and fertilization practices alone will return neglected, water-stressed trees to normal productivity as early as trees that have been headed-back.
    • Residual Activity of Insecticides to Citrus Thrips on Lemon Foliage

      Kerns, David L.; Tellez, Tony; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-10)
      The residual activity of insecticides to second instar citrus thrips was measured on lemon foliage in 1998 and 1999. Dimethoate, Agri-Mek and acetamiprid provided only knockdown control of thrips, dropping to <70% mortality by 3 days after treatment (DAT). Baythroid performed slightly better, providing about 95% mortality 3 DAT during three of the evaluation periods, but by 7 DAT was giving about 75% mortality. Alert, Carzol, and Success provided the longest residual activity, lasting 7 to 14 DAT. Residual activity in general appeared to be greater in the May and June evaluation, relative to the April evaluation. The apparent shorter residual activity under cooler condition in April 1998 is not understood but maybe due to a difference in the physiological nature of the leaves earlier in the season.
    • Residual activity of insecticides to citrus thrips on lemon foliage

      Kerns, David L.; Tellez, Tony; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-11)
      The residual activity of insecticides to second instar citrus thrips was measured on lemon foliage in 1998. In April, Dimethoate and Agri-Mek provided only knockdown control of thrips, dropping to <70% mortality by 3 days after treatment (DAT). Baythroid performed slightly better, providing 95% mortality 3 DAT, but by 7 DAT was giving about 74% mortality. Alert, Carzol, Success and AZEXP-2 provided the longest residual activity, lasting 7 days, but began to slip at 14 DAT. AZEXP-1 induced only 74% 0 DAT. Although, residual activity in general was greater in June than April, however this increase in residual activity did not necessarily increase the length of commercially acceptable residual. Agri-Mek and Dimethoate still only provided knockdown activity, and Baythroid was still giving 3 days of good activity. AZEXP-1 performed much better following the June application relative to the April application, providing 3 days of adequate activity. Although we are not certain the reason for this result, it maybe due to the adsorption properties of this chemical relative to leaf physiology. Alert performed similarly in June and April, and Carzol, Success and AZEXP-2 each lasted about 1 week longer.
    • The Response of Table Grape Growth, Production, and Ripening to Water Stress

      Garrot, D. J.; Gibson, R. D. Jr.; Kilby, M. W.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-09)
      Four year old 'Flame Seedless' grapevines, located in a commercial vineyard, were subjected to increased water stress levels based on infrared canopy temperatures and the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) for two years. CWSI levels were approximately .18, .30 and .33 for the wet, medium and dry treatments. In the first year there were no significant differences in yield however, there was a significant reduction in the amount of water applied in both the medium and dry treatments when compared to the wet treatment. In addition, the wet treatment had significantly greater growth during the first growing season when comparing pruning weights.
    • Results of Scion and Rootstock Trials for Citrus in Arizona - 1997

      Wright, Glenn C.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike; Department of Plant Sciences, Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-09)
      Five rootstocks, 'Carrizo' citrange, Citrus macrophylla, Rough lemon, Swingle citrumelo and Citrus volkameriana were selected for evaluation using 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' as the scion. Early results indicate that trees on C. volkameriana and C. macrophylla are superior to those on other rootstocks in both growth and yield. 'Swingle' and Carrizo' are performing poorly. In a similar trial, Four 'Lisbon' lemon selections, 'Frost Nucellar', 'Corona Foothills', 'Limoneira 8A' and 'Prior' from the University of Arizona Citrus Budwood Certification plot were selected for evaluation on Citrus volkameriana rootstock. Early results indicate that the 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' selection is outperforming the other selections in both growth and yield. Preliminary results from another lemon cultivar trial and a navel orange cultivar trial are presented as well.
    • Results of scion and rootstock trials for citrus in Arizona - 1998

      Wright, Glenn C.; Tilt, Philip A.; Peña, Marco A.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike; Dept. Plant Sciences, U. of A., Yuma Mesa Agricultural Center, Yuma, Arizona (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-11)
      Five rootstocks, 'Carrizo' citrange, Citrus macrophylla, Rough lemon, Swingle citrumelo and Citrus volkameriana were selected for evaluation using 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' as the scion. 1998-99 results indicate that trees on C. macrophylla and C. volkameriana are superior to those on other rootstocks in both growth and yield. C. macrophylla is beginning to outperform C. volkameriana. 'Swingle’ and Carrizo' are performing poorly. In a similar trial, Four 'Lisbon' lemon selections, 'Frost Nucellar', 'Corona Foothills', 'Limoneira 8A' and 'Prior' were selected for evaluation on Citrus volkameriana rootstock. 1998-99 results indicate that the 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' selection is superior, and that ‘Corona Foothills Lisbon’ may also be superior to the other selections in both growth and yield. Results from another lemon cultivar trial suggest that 'Cavers Lisbon', 'Limonero Fino 49' and 'Villafranca’ lemons may be good candidates for plantings as well. Results from two other lemon scion trials, a navel orange cultivar trial and a 'Valencia' orange trial are presented as well.
    • Results of Scion and Rootstock Trials for Citrus in Arizona - 2000

      Wright, Glenn C.; Peña, Marco A.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike; Department of Plant Sciences, U. of A., Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-02)
      Five rootstocks, 'Carrizo' citrange, Citrus macrophylla, Rough lemon, Swingle citrumelo and Citrus volkameriana were selected for evaluation using 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' as the scion. 1994-2000 results indicate that trees on C. macrophylla and C. volkameriana are superior to those on other rootstocks in both growth and yield. C. macrophylla is outperforming C. volkameriana. Rough lemon is intermediate, and 'Swingle' and Carrizo’ are performing poorly. For 2000-01, rough lemon trees performed similarly to C. macrophylla and C. volkameriana. In a similar trial, Four 'Lisbon' lemon selections, 'Frost Nucellar', 'Corona Foothills', 'Limoneira 8A' and 'Prior' were selected for evaluation on Citrus volkameriana rootstock. 1994-2001 results indicate that the 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' and 'Corona Foothills Lisbon' are superior in yield and fruit earliness. Results from another lemon cultivar trial suggest that 'Cavers Lisbon', 'Limonero Fino 49' and 'Villafranca' lemons may be good candidates for plantings as well. Results from three other lemon scion trials, a navel orange cultivar trial and a 'Valencia' orange trial, and a 'Fallglo' mandarin trial are presented as well.
    • Results of Scion and Rootstock Trials for Citrus in Arizona -- 1999

      Wright, Glenn C.; Peña, Marco A.; Wright, Glenn; Kilby, Mike; Department of Plant Sciences, U. of A., Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-10)
      Five rootstocks, 'Carrizo' citrange, Citrus macrophylla, Rough lemon, Swingle citrumelo and Citrus volkameriana were selected for evaluation using 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' as the scion. 1999-2000 results indicate that trees on C. macrophylla and C. volkameriana are superior to those on other rootstocks in both growth and yield. C. macrophylla is outperforming C. volkameriana. Rough lemon is intermediate, and 'Swingle' and Carrizo’ are performing poorly. In a similar trial, Four 'Lisbon' lemon selections, 'Frost Nucellar', 'Corona Foothills', 'Limoneira 8A' and 'Prior' were selected for evaluation on Citrus volkameriana rootstock. 1998-99 results indicate that the 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' and 'Corona Foothills Lisbon' are superior in yield and fruit earliness. Results from another lemon cultivar trial suggest that 'Cavers Lisbon', 'Limonero Fino 49' and 'Villafranca' lemons may be good candidates for plantings as well. Results from two other lemon scion trials, a navel orange cultivar trial and a 'Valencia' orange trial, and a mandarin trial are presented as well.