• Examination of New Chemistries to Control Powdery Mildew of Cantaloupe in 2000

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001-08)
      Powdery mildew can occur on melons annually in Arizona. Sphaerotheca fuliginea is the plant pathogenic fungus that causes powdery mildew of cucurbits, such as cantaloupe, honeydew, watermelon, cucumber and squash. When environmental conditions are favorable, disease incidence and severity can reach economically significant levels. Development of powdery mildew on melons is favored by moderate temperatures and relative humidity, succulent plant growth and reduced light intensity brought about by a dense plant canopy. Potential new fungicides were evaluated and compared to existing chemicals for control of powdery mildew of cantaloupe in a field trial conducted during the spring of 2000 at the Yuma Agricultural Center A moderately high level of disease had developed by crop maturity (June 22) on nontreated plants. All treatments significantly reduced the level of powdery mildew on both sides of leaves, compared to nontreated plants. The best treatments among those tested with respect to disease control on the underside of leaves, where disease is more difficult to control than on the tops of leaves, included Actigard, Armicarb+Quadris, BAS 500, Benlate+Microthiol, Flint, Flint+Trilogy, Microthiol, Quadris+Actigard, Quadris+Benlate, Quinoxyfen, Nova, Nova+KHHUBF, Topsin, Topsin+Trilogy, Benlate, Benlate+Trilogy, Folicur, Quadris and Topsin+Microthiol. The potential availability of new chemistries for management of powdery mildew of cantaloupe and other cucurbits could help improve overall control of powdery mildew as well as facilitate the development of fungicide resistance management strategies, which strive to minimize the risk of resistance development by the pathogen to these compounds.
    • Interaction of Pepper Experimental Lines with Phytophthora Crown and Root Rot in 2000

      Matheron, Michael E.; Crosby, Kevin M.; Porchas, Martin; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001-08)
      This study was conducted in the greenhouse at the Yuma Agricultural Center. Thirty-nine experimental lines of pepper from the Texas A&M pepper breeding collection were seeded and grown in the greenhouse in 8 fl. oz. plastic pots. When plants were 2 months old (Aug 8), the potting mix in each pot was infested with Phytophthora capsici. Plants were placed in 2-in. deep containers filled with water for 48 hr every 2 weeks, which maintained the potting mix in a saturated condition and encouraged disease development. The mean temperature of the potting mix from the time it was infested with Phytophthora capsici to the termination date of the study was 81 °F. Disease progress and the relative susceptibility of each test plant to Phytophthora crown and root rot was assessed by recording the date when each plant displayed necrosis around the lower stem and was permanently wilted. The environmental conditions during this study were very favorable for disease development. The mean duration of plant survival for pepper selections ranged from 9 to 51 days. If no plants had died due to Phytophthora crown and root rot, the duration of plant survival would have been 74 days. Most plant selections were readily attacked and killed by Phytophthora capsici. The experimental lines with the highest survival rating may be somewhat tolerant to disease; however, additional testing in further greenhouse and field trials is required to substantiate these preliminary results.
    • Grass Weed Control in Melons

      Umeda, K.; Lund, N.; MacNeil, D.; Robertz, D.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001-08)
      Efficacy of the grass herbicides showed that Select (clethodim) and BAS-620 (BASF Corporation) at rates as low as 0.1 lb AI/A were nearly comparable in controlling 2 leaf stage of growth watergrass or when applied a week later on 3-4 inch tall watergrass. Fusilade DX (fluazifop-p-butyl) was intermediate in controlling grasses and 0.188 lb AI/A was necessary to give equivalent control of larger grasses as compared to the 0.1 lb AI/A rate that gave acceptable control of smaller grasses. Poast (sethoxydim) at 0.188 lb AI/A gave acceptable control of small grasses but lower rates or later timed applications were not as efficacious.
    • New Postemergence Herbicides Evaluation in Cantaloupes

      Umeda, K.; Lund, N.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001-08)
      Halosulfuron applied POST with an adjuvant and ammonium sulfate was effective against lambsquarters and nutsedge. Rimsulfuron, flumetsulam, and thifensulfuron were effective against the pigweeds and purslane with minimal activity against lambsquarters. Halosulfuron and rimsulfuron were safe on melons and flumetsulam and thifensulfuron were marginally safe on cantaloupes. The combinations of these products may offer broader spectrum weed control.
    • Evaluation of Products to Manage Sclerotinia Leaf Drop of Lettuce in 2001

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001-08)
      Sclerotinia leaf drop in Arizona is caused by two soil-borne fungi, Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum. Moist soil and moderate temperature favor this disease. Some new products in development were evaluated for control of leaf drop on lettuce during the winter vegetable growing season of 2000-2001. Sclerotia of each pathogen were applied to plots after thinning and just before the first of two applications of test compounds. A high level of disease control in the S. minor plots occurred with an appropriate concentration of Plantpro 45, Fluazinam, Contans, BAS 510, BAS 510+BAS 500, Medallion and Serenade. The same products (except Serenade) at an appropriate rate significantly reduced the amount of leaf drop caused by S. sclerotiorum. Elevate did not significantly reduce disease caused by either pathogen. Two of the products tested, Serenade and Contans, are biological control materials. Continued demonstration of efficacy by one or both of these products may provide the opportunity to utilize biological control agents to manage Sclerotinia leaf drop.
    • Evaluation of New Preemergence and Postemergence Herbicides for Onion Weed Control

      Umeda, K.; Lund, N.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001-08)
      In the preemergence test, flumioxazin at 0.1 to 0.3 lb AI/A severely reduced the onion crop stand. Flumioxazin applied caused significant onion injury of 23 to 37% at 2 WAT for rates of 0.04 to 0.1 lb AI/A. Fluroxypyr and carfentrazone applied postemergence did not show any onion injury at 5 WAT. Fluroxypyr and carfentrazone did not offer acceptable control of annual yellow sweetclover at any rate. Carfentrazone at 0.063 lb AI/A demonstrated activity on lambsquarters and control nearly approached acceptable levels at 83% after 5 WAT. Fluroxypyr did not provide acceptable control of lambsquarters.
    • Field Evaluation of Romaine Lettuce Varieties Grown in Southwest Low Desert Soils

      Zerkoune, Mohammed A.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001-08)
      Romaine lettuce plays an important role in Yuma’s economy. An estimated 10,000 acres are cropped to large number of varieties each year with planting season that spreads from September to March. The demonstration site was selected to compare new and existing varieties of romaine lettuce on growers’ fields using standard farming practices. Selected growth parameters were evaluated throughout the growing season. Results indicate that varieties tested at Barkley Farms in Yuma are expected to do well if grown under similar growing conditions and planting time. Varieties tested during this planting slot did not experience any incidence of diseases. There was no significant head size and head weight difference among varieties evaluated. Number of heads per bed and number of heads left after harvest were significantly different among varieties tested.