• New Challenges to Management of Whitefly Resistance to Insecticides in Arizona

      Dennehy, Timothy J.; DeGain, Benjamin A.; Harpold, Virginia S.; Brown, Judith K.; Morin, Shai; Fabrick, Jeff A.; Byrne, Frank J.; Nichols, Robert L.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti; et al. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2005-12)
      We report on susceptibility to insecticides of whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) collected from cotton, melons and ornamental plants during the 2004 season. No major problems with field performance of insecticides against whiteflies were observed or reported in 2004 in Arizona cotton, vegetables, or melons. However, monitoring revealed further statewide reduction in susceptibility to pyriproxyfen (Knack®) and showed that whiteflies possessing pyriproxyfen resistance could be detected in all low desert areas of the state. Susceptibility to buprofezin (Applaud®/Courier®) has not changed significantly since 1997. Mean susceptibility to synergized pyrethroids (e.g., Danitol® + Orthene®) has increased strikingly on a statewide basis since 1995 though highly resistant whiteflies were detected in some collections from cotton, melons and ornamentals. Whiteflies from throughout Arizona continued to be highly susceptible to imidacloprid (Admire®/Provado®). However, susceptibility to the related neonicotinoid insecticide, acetamiprid (Intruder®) varied widely and was lowest in collections from melons and greenhouse plants. Whiteflies from cotton that were least susceptibile to acetamiprid were significantly less susceptible to a second neonicotinoid, thiamethoxam (Actara®/Centric®/Platinum®). The most worrisome findings of our 2004 studies stemmed from detection of a strain of B. tabaci, at a retail nursery, that was essentially unaffected by pyriproxyfen in egg bioassays. It also possessed strikingly reduced susceptibility to acetamiprid, buprofezin, mixtures of fenpropathrin and acephate, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam. This strain was found to be a biotype of B. tabaci previously undescribed in the US, the Q biotype. We cannot predict with accuracy the timecourse of future resistance problems or the spread and impact of this new whitefly biotype. However, our findings point to the need to formulate contingency plans for management of resistance, in order to insure that Arizona agriculture does not revisit the severe whitefly control problems experienced in the past.