• Temporal Activity of New Insecticde Chemistries Against Beet Armyworm in Lettuce

      Palumbo, John C.; Kerns, David L.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-08)
      Three new insecticide chemistries (Alert, Spinosad and Confirm) were evaluated and compared with standard chemistries for temporal mortality of beet armyworm in lettuce. Field assessment and lab bioassay were conducted at the thinning, heading, and harvest stage of lettuce. Results from both the field and laboratory indicated similar trends for the temporal activity of the products. Alert appears to be have the most rapid "knockdown activity" with 100% mortality consistently occurring by 2 DAT. Spiniest, a naturalyte insecticide, has activity similar to Larvin. Both require 2-3 days to achieve complete larval mortality. Confirm, a new IGR selective for lepidoptera, requires significantly more time to achieve complete mortality (4-5 DAT). It can be compared with Bt (Xentari) activity in that it has initially slow activity. However, unlike Bt, it can effectively cause complete beet armyworm mortality. The results of this study are consistent with similar studies we conducted in 1994 and 1995 and provide basic guidelines concerning the activity and assessment of the performance of these materials in the field. However, PCAs and growers will ultimately be able to develop specific use patterns for these materials within their individual lettuce pest management programs.
    • Mixed Lettuce and Romaine Variety Trials 1995/96

      Wilcox, Mark; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-08)
    • Management of Powdery Mildew on Cantaloupe: Efficacy of Fungicides in 1995 Field Trial

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-08)
      Powdery mildew of cantaloupe and other melons in Arizona is caused by the plant pathogenic fungus Sphaerotheca fuliginea. The disease is found in melon fields each year; however, the incidence and severity of the disease is quite variable. Disease development is favored by low relative humidity, moderate temperatures, and succulent plant growth. Potential new fungicides were evaluated for disease management in a field trial conducted in the spring of 1995. In this study, BAS-490 and Reach provided the highest level of efficacy among the materials and rates tested. Generally, lower levels of disease led to increased yield of marketable fruit.
    • Thermodormancy in Lettuce

      Hurlburt, M. W. II; Ray, D. T.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-08)
      Most lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) seed fails to germinate at high temperatures. This phenomenon thermodormancy, is common in desert regions where 87% of all lettuce is grown in the U.S.A. A study was conducted using a non-thermodormant plant introduction, PI 251245, and two highly thermodormant Dutch butterhead cultivars, 'Dabora' and 'Severa'. Reciprocal crosses were made and germination trials conducted to observe how maternal and paternal influence and seed color contribute to thermodormancy. At 25 °C, germination was 100% for the three parents and the reciprocal F1 hybrids. Germination differences occurred at both 30° and 35 °C among the parents, with P1251245 with 100% germination and Dabora and Severa with less than 10% germination at both temperatures. Segregating F3 and F4 populations from Dabora x PI 251245 were investigated further. Genetic variation found between families suggests that breeding lettuce for improved thermotolerance may be possible. Seed color did not influence thermodormancy.
    • Management of Downy and Powdery Mildew on Lettuce: Efficacy of Fungicides in 1996 Field Trial

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-08)
      Downy and powdery mildew are caused by the plant pathogenic fungi Bremia lactucae and Erysiphe cichoracearum, respectively. Cool and moist environmental conditions favor development ofdowny mildew, while warmer and dry weather is conducive for development of powdery mildew. Potential new fungicides were evaluated for management of these diseases in 1996. Both downy and powdery mildew developed in the test plots. All tested materials significantly reduced the severity of downy mildew compared to plants not treated with a fungicide. Compared to nontreated control plants as well as some tested materials and rates, significant reduction of powdery mildew was achieved with Azoxystrobin 80WDG + Latron B-1956, BAS 490 02F, Ciba G /MZ + Mancozeb 75DF, Dithane 75DF + Latron CS-7, Propamocarb 6EC (high rate), R11-7281 2F + Larron CS-7, and Microthiol 80WDG.
    • Cabbage Variety Trials 1995/96

      Wilcox, Mark; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-08)
    • Whitefly Control with Foliar Insecticides Following Imidacloprid in Cantaloupes

      Umeda, Kai; Fredman, Chris; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-08)
      Foliar insecticides for whiteflies (Bemisia sp., WF) were applied as a supplementary control measure at 6 weeks after treatment with imidacloprid (Admire®) at planting time of melons. Beauveria bassiana fungus spores (Mycotrol®), pyriproxyfen (S-71639, Valent), and azadirachtin (Align®) are non-conventional insecticides that could be safer on beneficial parasites and predators. The number of eggs and nymphs counted at all rating dates for all treatments were not significantly different from the foliarly untreated check. Mycotrol treated melons showed higher number of nymphs following the second application. The Align treatment tended to exhibit higher number of nymphs after two applications. The addition of an adjuvant did not appear to enhance pyriproxyfen efficacy.
    • Postemergence Herbicide Weed Control in Onions

      Umeda, Kai; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-08)
      Onions treated at the 2-leaf stage of growth with the 3rd leaf just beginning to emerge with postemergence herbicides bromoxynil (Buctril®) and oxyfluorfen (Goal®) exhibited slight injury at 11 days after treatment (DAT) but had recovered to show no injury at 1 month after treatment (MAT). Annual yellow sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis) was the predominat weed in the test site and early ratings showed that Goal at 0.25 lb a.i. /A and Goal plus Buctril gave marginally acceptable control at 80 %. Buctril alone did not control clover. At 1 MAT, the clovers had recovered from the initial injury and the level of control had declined to become unacceptable.
    • Deposition and Efficacy of Capture and Thiodan Applied to Melons Using Several Application Technologies

      Palumbo, John; Coates, Wayne; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-08)
      A study was conducted in 1995 to evaluate five application technologies in the field in terms of deposition efficiency, as well as to assess their abilities to control the sweet potato whitefly and thereby influence crop yield. The FMC and ESS-on treatments provided the greatest deposition on the ventral side of the leaves. The FMC system tended to maintain high ventral deposition efficiencies as the plants grew and the canopy closed, whereas the efficiency of the ESS declined. Differences in ventral deposition efficiency among treatments were not closely associated with differences in whitefly control, although the declining rate of ventral deposition for the ESS-on is also reflected in its declining superiority in adult insect control relative to the CDA and conventional systems. The ESS sprayer provided somewhat better whitefly control than the conventional treatment, and was also associated with a higher yield of #12 melons than the control and Admire treatments, but not better than the conventional treatment. Early control of adults was associated with reduced egg counts later in the season, suggesting that there may be long term control advantages with the ESS system. New application technologies need to be developed to obtain higher ventral deposition and maximum whitefly control, with minimum use of insecticides.
    • Lannate Resistance in Beet Armyworm in Yuma

      Kerns, David L.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-08)
      A beet armyworm population was collected from spinach in Yuma, Feb 1996. This population was evaluated for resistance to Lannate. A range of Lannate dosages were prepared by disolving Lannate into acetone. A miroapplicator was used to topically apply the dosages. Dosage-mortality data were obtained from 3rd instar larvae held for 24 hr after treatment. The BAW population tested in 1996 had an LD₅₀ of value of433.34 μg-methomyl/g -worm, compared to a historical susceptible strain which had an LD₅₀ of 17.54 μg/g-worm, a 24.7 fold increase in resistance.
    • Water and Nitrogen Interactions in Subsurface Drip Irrigated Broccoli and Cauliflower Production

      Doerge, T. A.; Thompson, T. L.; McCreary, T. W.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-08)
      Field experiments were conducted during the 1995-96 winter growing season at The University of Arizona's Maricopa Agricultural Center to determine the response of broccoli and cauliflower to a factorial arrangement of water rates and nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates. Both the broccoli and cauliflower experiments were randomized complete block factorial designs with three water levels (deficient, optimum, and excessive), four N fertilizer levels (deficient, suboptimal, supra optimal, excessive), and four replications. Drip tubing was buried at a depth of eight inches along the midline of each planting bed. Irrigation was applied daily as needed to maintain the predetermined target soil water tension levels and N fertilizer (urea ammonium nitrate solution) was applied in 4 or 5 split applications. Broccoli spears and cauliflower curds were harvested weighed and graded according to prevailing commercial practices. The optimum marketable yield of broccoli of 4.6 tons/acre was achieved with a total application of 18.9 inches of water and 267 lbs. N/acre. The optimum marketable yield of cauliflower of 9.5 tons /acre was achieved with a total application of 18.5 inches of water and 178 lbs. N/acre. For both crops a nitrogen deficiency had a greater negative impact on marketable yield than either deficient or excessive water application. Optimum marketable yields, earliness and head quality for both crops were achieved when the average soil water tension level for the entire season was maintained at about 10 cbars (or 13 cbars uncorrected gauge reading).
    • Evaluation of Insecticides for Lepidopterous Insect Pest Control in Cabbage

      Umeda, Kai; Fredman, Chris; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-08)
      Experimental insecticides MK-244 (Merck), Alert (AC 303630, Cyanamid), and Confirm (RH-5992, Rohm and Haas) demonstrated very good efficacy in reducing the lepidopterous pests including plutell4 xylostella (diamondback moth, DBM) and Tricoplusia at (cabbage looper, CL) in cabbage. The total number of small, medium, and large DBM larvae for all treatments was lower than the untreated at most rating dates. The experimental insecticides compared favorably with commercially available products Lannate®, Larvin®, and Kryocide®.
    • Insecticides for Whitefly Control in Cantaloupes

      Umeda, K.; Fredman, C.; Fredman, R.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-08)
      Several experimental insecticide treatment combinations were evaluated and demonstrated very good efficacy against Bemisia argentifolii [silverleaf whitefly (WF) also known as sweetpotato WF, B. tabaci]. Adults and immatures were most effectively reduced compared to the untreated check by pyriproxyfen (S-71639, Valent) treatments and fenpropathrin (Danitol®) plus acephate (Orthene®). CGA-215944 (Ciba) plus fenoxycarb (Ciba) treatments compared favorably with many of the pyrethroid combination treatments. Registered products esfenvalerate (Asana®), endosulfan (Thiodan®), cypermethrin (Ammo®), naled (Dibrom®), and oxydemeton-methyl (Metasystox-R®) complemented many of the combination treatments to reduce WF relative to the untreated check
    • Cantaloupe Variety Trials 1996

      Wilcox, Mark; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-08)
    • Residual Activity of New Insecticide Chemistries Against Beet Armyworm in Lettuce

      Kerns, David L.; Palumbo, John C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-08)
      Three new insecticide chemistries (Alert, Success and Confirm) were evaluated and compared with standard chemistries for residual activity to beet armyworm in lettuce. Lettuce was treated in the field with the insecticides and left for 0, 3, 5 and 7 days. Leaves from treated plants were then brought into the laboratory where second instar beet armvworms were reared on them. Mortality was estimated 5 days after the worms were placed on the leaves. Bioassay were conducted at the thinning, heading, and harvest stages of lettuce. Under high temperature and light intensity, only Alert and Confirm provided the best residual control of beet armyworm, exhibiting good activity for about 3 days after application. Success had better residual activity than Lannate, and both were better than Xentari. Under cool temperatures and low light intensity conditions, Alert, Confirm and Larvin exhibited good activity for at least 5 days following an application, (7 days or greater for Alert and Confirm). Lannate and Xentari both had greater residual activity late in the season, but were not as effective as Alert, Confirm or Larvin. Late season activity of Success did not appear to differ much from early season observations, and did not appear to provide more than 3 days residual activity.