• Comparative Effect of Five Fungicides on the Development of Root and Stem Rot and Survival of Chile Pepper Plants Grown in Field Soil Naturally Infested with Phytophthora capsici

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      Five different fungicides, including azoxystrobin, dimethomorph, fluazinam, fosetyl-Al, and mefenozem (metalaxyl), were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the development of root and crown rot and increase the survival of chile pepper plants grown in soil naturally infested with Phytophthora capsici. For chile pepper plants grown in field soil naturally infested with P. capsici and subjected to a 48 h flood period every 2 weeks, growth and survival of plants receiving one treatment of dimethomorph at 100 μg/ml or fluazinam at 1,000 μg/ml were significantly greater than that for plants treated once with azoxystrobin at 1,000 μg/ml or fosetyl-Al at 3,000 μg/ml. For each tested fungicide, values for duration of plant survival and shoot and root fresh weight usually were numerically larger but not significantly different for chile peppers receiving water as needed compared to those flooded for 48 h every 2 weeks. The potential and relative value of azoxystrobin, dimethomorph, fosetyl-Al, and fluazinam as chemical management tools for Phytophthora root and stem rot on chile pepper, in addition to mefenozem (metalaxyl), has been demonstrated.
    • Comparison of New Fungicides to Manage Sclerotinia Leaf Drop of Lettuce in 2000

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum are the two soil-borne pathogenic fungi that cause Sclerotinia leaf drop in Arizona. Moist soils and moderate temperature favor this disease. Some new fungicides in development were evaluated for control of leaf drop on lettuce during the winter vegetable growing season of 1999-2000. Sclerotia of each pathogen were applied to plots after thinning and just before the first of two applications of test compounds. In this trial, the final count of dead lettuce plants usually was numerically reduced, compared to nontreated plots, in plots infested with either pathogen that were treated with the standard compounds Ronilan or Rovral as well as the experimental compound Medallion; however, the reduction was significant only in plots infested with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The number of dead plants in plots infested with either Sclerotinia minor or S. sclerotiorum was significantly reduced by another experimental chemistry, Fluazinam. Finally, a biological control product, Serenade, significantly reduced disease in plots containing S. minor, but not S. sclerotiorum. Continued demonstration of efficacy by Serenade may provide the opportunity to utilize a biological control product to reduce the incidence of Sclerotinia leaf drop of lettuce caused by S. minor.
    • Effect of Cultivar and Actigard on Development of Powdery Mildew on Lettuce

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      Nine different cultivars of lettuce were planted at the Yuma Valley Agricultural Center. Plants were treated four times with two different rates of Actigard. Control plants were not treated. Near plant maturity (Mar. 23, 2000) the severity of powdery mildew was recorded. Among nontreated plants, Cibola, Conquistador, and Coolguard had the lowest levels of powdery mildew. On the other hand, Bos 9003 and Mohawk had significantly higher levels of powdery mildew than all other tested cultivars. Four applications of Actigard at a rate of 14 g. of active ingredient per acre significantly reduced the level of powdery mildew on all nine tested cultivars of lettuce. On two lettuce cultivars, powdery mildew was significantly lower when treated with Actigard at the 28 g. a.i./A rate when compared to the 14 g. a.i./A rate. No evidence of phytotoxicity was apparent on plants treated with Actigard. This study suggests that lettuce cultivars differ in susceptibility to powdery mildew. Also, Actigard was able to provide added protection against powdery mildew for all tested lettuce cultivars.
    • Effect of Preplant Fumigation on Yield of Chile Pepper Infected with Root-Knot Nematode

      Olsen, M.; McClure, M.; Husman, S.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      A field test was established in 1999 to determine the effect of preplant soil fumigation on yield of chile pepper in southeastern Arizona in order to give growers data on which to base management decisions. Replicated plots within a nematode-infested field planted with New Mex 6-4 chile in March 1999 were either treated with Telone II fumigant at 7 gal/A two weeks before planting or not treated. In a mid-season assay in July 1999, the effects of fumigation were evident in plant canopy growth although numbers of J2/cc soil were not significant between treatments (p=0.058). Differences in yields between fumigated plots and untreated plots were significant (p=0.014). The average yield in fumigated plots was 12.4% higher than that in untreated plots.
    • Evaluation of Fungicide Performance for Control of Powdery Mildew on Lettuce in 2000

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      Powdery mildew on lettuce is caused by the fungus Erysiphe cichoracearum. This disease is favored by moderate to warm temperatures and dry weather conditions. Several potential new fungicides were evaluated for control of powdery mildew on lettuce in 2000. Powdery mildew appeared in our plots by Feb 9 and reached high levels by plant maturity on Mar 2. Nontreated lettuce plants were heavily infected with powdery mildew at plant maturity, whereas the disease ranged from low to virtually nonexistent levels in plots treated with BAS 500, Quadris+Actigard, Flint, Flint+Actigard, Flint alternated (alt.) with Trilogy, Rally, Microthiol, EksPunge alt. with Microthiol, KHHUBF-99-001, Quinoxyfen, Flint alt.with Serenade, Rally alt. with Serenade, and Serenade alt. with Microthiol. These compounds have various modes of action, and some could be available for “organic” production. The future availability of one or more of these chemistries under development could help in efforts to control powdery mildew of lettuce and to establish and maintain a fungicide resistance management program for plant disease control products of importance for this crop.
    • Performance of New Chemistries for Control of Powdery Mildew of Cantaloupe in 1999

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      Powdery mildew on melons is an annual disease problem in Arizona. Sphaerotheca fuliginea is the plant pathogenic fungus that causes powdery mildew of cucurbits, which include cantaloupe, honeydew, watermelon, cucumber and squash. When environmental conditions are favorable, disease incidence and severity can reach economically significant levels. Factors that favor development of powdery mildew on melons include moderate temperatures and relative humidity, succulent plant growth, and reduced light intensity brought about by a dense plant canopy. Potential new fungicides were evaluated and compared to existing chemicals for control of powdery mildew of cantaloupe in a field trial conducted during the spring of 1999 at the Yuma Agricultural Center. A high level of disease had developed by crop maturity (June 29). On nontreated plants 43% of the upper leaf surface was covered by powdery mildew, whereas the level on the underside of leaves was 78%.. All of the 34 different treatments significantly reduced the level of powdery mildew on both sides of leaves, compared to nontreated plants. The best treatments among those tested with respect to disease control on the underside of leaves, where disease control is more difficult than on the tops of leaves, included Topsin+Trilogy, Benlate, Benlate+Trilogy, Quadris, A815, Topsin+Microthiol, and Topsin. The potential availability of new chemistries for management of powdery mildew of cantaloupe and other cucurbits could help improve overall control of powdery mildew as well as the implementation of fungicide resistance management strategies, which strive to minimize the risk of resistance development by the pathogen to these compounds.