• Screening New Herbicides for Weed Control in Head and Leaf Lettuces and Broccoli

      Umeda, Kai; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      In preemergence (PREE) herbicide testing, all three lettuces, head, romaine, and red leaf, exhibited some tolerance to carfentrazone, sulfentrazone, flumetsulam, rimsulfuron, and thifensulfuron while giving effective weed control. In postemergence (POST) testing, cloransulam and flumetsulam controlled weeds at the lowest applied rates while lettuces were safe to cloransulam at 0.01 lb AI/A and flumetsulam at 0.03 lb AI/A. Imazamox was safe on lettuces at 0.01 lb AI/A and controlled weeds at 0.007 lb AI/A. For broccoli, sulfentrazone, fluroxypyr, and thifensulfuron applied PREE demonstrated reasonable safety and weed control. Cloransulam, flumetsulam, and fluroxypyr applied POST on broccoli exhibited adequate crop safety and good weed control.
    • Seasonal Abundance and Control of the Lettuce Aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, on Head Lettuce in Arizona

      Palumbo, John C.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      Small plot studies were conducted in 1999/2000 to examine the population abundance and control of the lettuce aphid on winter and spring head lettuce crops. Seven, 0.25 acre planting of head lettuce were established beginning in October with final harvest occurring in April. Replicated plots within several planting were treated with an Admire treatment at planting, a sidedress application of Platinum post-planting or allowed to remained untreated. Lettuce aphids were first detected in our experimental area on Feb 14 in PD 3 in untreated plants. Temperature had an important influence upon lettuce aphid development based on our field observations. Population appeared to increase in early March when the average daily temperature was about 65 °F. We observed a sharp decline in population abundance in April where daytime highs exceeded 90 °F. We were surprised by the marginal level of lettuce aphid control provided by the systemic insecticides. Lettuce treated with Admire in the early planting dates appeared to prevent lettuce aphids from significantly infesting lettuce heads at harvest. In the later planting dates, both Admire and Platinum contained significantly fewer aphids and infested plants than the untreated control. However, lettuce aphids in the last 3 planting dates were able to colonize plants and infest a larger proportion of heads at levels not considered commercially acceptable. We are hesitant to draw conclusions from our results collected from a single season , and plan to replicate this work next year under different environmental conditions and higher rates of Admire and Platinum.
    • Squash Variety Trial

      Clark, L. J.; Walser, R.; Carpenter, E. W.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      Five Zucchini varieties and four yellow crook/straight-necked squash were grown in a replicated small plot trial on the Safford Agricultural Center in 1998. Varieties were picked regularly during the growing season. Yields are shown in tabular form and also graphically to indicate how each variety performed throughout the season.
    • Susceptibility of Arizona Whiteflies to Neonicotinoid Insecticides and IGRs: New Developments in the 1999 Season

      Li, Yongsheng; Dennehy, Timothy J.; Li, Xiaohua; Wigert, Monika E.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti; Extension Arthropod Resistance Management Laboratory, Department of Entomology (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      Whiteflies are serious pests of cotton, melons, and winter vegetables in Arizona’s low deserts. Successful management of whiteflies requires an integrated approach, a critical element of which is routine pest monitoring. In this paper we report findings of our 1999 investigations of resistance of Arizona whiteflies to insect growth regulators (IGRs) and neonicotinoid insecticides. Whiteflies collected from cotton fields, melon fields and greenhouses were tested for susceptibility to imidacloprid (Admire /Provado), and two other neonicotinoid insecticides, acetamiprid and thiamethoxam, and to two insect growth regulators (IGRs), buprofezin (Applaud ) and pyriproxyfen (Knack ). Contrasts of 1999 and 1998 results indicated increased susceptibilities, on average, to both imidacloprid and buprofezin of whiteflies collected from cotton. A cropping system study showed that whiteflies collected from spring melons had significantly lower susceptibility to imidacloprid than those collected from cotton or fall melons. The opposite was found for pyriproxyfen, to which whiteflies from cotton and fall melons had lower susceptibility than those from spring melons. As in 1998, whiteflies with reduced susceptibility to imidacloprid continue to be found in certain locations, particularly in spring melon fields and greenhouses. Results of our laboratory bioassays on susceptibility of Arizona whiteflies to neonicotinoid insecticides provided evidence of a low order cross-resistance between imidacloprid, acetamiprid and thiamethoxam. Monitoring in 1999 provided the first evidence of reduced susceptibility of Arizona whiteflies to pyriproxyfen.
    • Sweet Corn Variety Trial

      Clark, L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Neff, R. A.; Martin, S. T.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      Sixteen sweet corn varieties were grown in replicated small plot trials with two dates of planting at the Safford Agricultural Center in 1999. Candy Corner ranked number one and two in the early and late dates of planting, respectively, and FMX 413 ranked number one in the later date of planting study. Both varieties produced over 2,500 dozen ears per acre. Sugar readings were made and tabulated for all varieties using a portable refractometer.