• Effect of Preplant Fumigation on Yield of Chile Pepper Infected with Root-Knot Nematode

      Olsen, M.; McClure, M.; Husman, S.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      A field test was established in 1999 to determine the effect of preplant soil fumigation on yield of chile pepper in southeastern Arizona in order to give growers data on which to base management decisions. Replicated plots within a nematode-infested field planted with New Mex 6-4 chile in March 1999 were either treated with Telone II fumigant at 7 gal/A two weeks before planting or not treated. In a mid-season assay in July 1999, the effects of fumigation were evident in plant canopy growth although numbers of J2/cc soil were not significant between treatments (p=0.058). Differences in yields between fumigated plots and untreated plots were significant (p=0.014). The average yield in fumigated plots was 12.4% higher than that in untreated plots.
    • Evaluation of Foliar Insecticides for Whitefly Control in Cantaloupes

      Umeda, K.; MacNeil, D.; Roberts, D.; Lund, N.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      The pyrethroid insecticides esfenvalerate (Asana®), bifenthrin (Capture®), or fenpropathrin (Danitol®) combined with endosulfan effectively reduced whitefly (WF, Bemisia argentifolii) counts at 1 week after treatment (WAT) following each of five applications. Asana, Capture, or Danitol combined with endosulfan effectively reduced WF counts at 1 WAT following each of five applications. Danitol treated melons exhibited fewer adult WF compared to Asana or Capture at most of the rating dates at 6 days after treatment (DAT) of each of the applications and also at 11 DAT of the last application. A single application of buprofezin (Applaud®) treatments or pymetrozine (Fulfill®) effectively reduced WF nymphs for 18 to 24 DAT and adults were reduced for 18 DAT. Fulfill exhibited a rate response where the higher rate reduced WF counts more than the lower rate.
    • Evaluation of Fungicide Performance for Control of Powdery Mildew on Lettuce in 2000

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      Powdery mildew on lettuce is caused by the fungus Erysiphe cichoracearum. This disease is favored by moderate to warm temperatures and dry weather conditions. Several potential new fungicides were evaluated for control of powdery mildew on lettuce in 2000. Powdery mildew appeared in our plots by Feb 9 and reached high levels by plant maturity on Mar 2. Nontreated lettuce plants were heavily infected with powdery mildew at plant maturity, whereas the disease ranged from low to virtually nonexistent levels in plots treated with BAS 500, Quadris+Actigard, Flint, Flint+Actigard, Flint alternated (alt.) with Trilogy, Rally, Microthiol, EksPunge alt. with Microthiol, KHHUBF-99-001, Quinoxyfen, Flint alt.with Serenade, Rally alt. with Serenade, and Serenade alt. with Microthiol. These compounds have various modes of action, and some could be available for “organic” production. The future availability of one or more of these chemistries under development could help in efforts to control powdery mildew of lettuce and to establish and maintain a fungicide resistance management program for plant disease control products of importance for this crop.
    • Evaluation of Herbicides for Nutsedge Control in Carrots

      Umeda, Kai; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      Halosulfuron and sulfentrazone were not safe to carrots at the lowest rates tested at 0.025 and 0.188 lb AI/A, respectively. At 20 DAT, halosulfuron at 0.038 to 0.075 lb AI/A gave better than 92% control of nutsedge in carrots. Nutsedge control was 77 to 80% at 20 DAT sulfentrazone applied at 0.188 to 0.375 lb AI/A. Both herbicides demonstrated slow activity against nutsedge during the first 7 DAT and then progressed to reduce weed growth at 13 to 20 DAT. Sulfentrazone appeared to act slightly faster than halosulfuron but showed maximum activity at 13 to 20 DAT.
    • Fall Planted, Late Maturing Onion Variety Trial

      Clark, L. J.; Walser, R.; Carpenter, E. W.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      Thirteen late maturing onion varieties were planted in the fall of 1998 and grown in a replicated small plot trial on the Safford Agricultural Center. Bulbs were pulled and the tops removed in early June. Three NuMex varieties, Mesa, Starlite and BR1, produced the best yields. Yields are shown in tabular form together with size distribution and quality characteristics.
    • Field Evaluation of Broccoli Varieties Grown in Southwest Low Desert Soils

      Zerkoune, Mohammed A.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      Based on acreage, broccoli is the third largest vegetable crop in Yuma County, after head lettuce, and romaine. It generates over $36 000000 a year. Efforts are continuously made by both seed industry and growers to grow better varieties that respond to consumers’ choice. Selection of newly adapted varieties is made based on agronomic performance as well as commercial value. Stand uniformity, disease resistance, color, head shape, and head size are among characteristics that are evaluated. The objective of this demonstration trial is to evaluate the characteristics of new varieties grown under standard cultural practices. Twelve varieties were tested at Yuma Agricultural Research Center. No incidence of disease was observed and the overall evaluation rating was greater than 4 indicating that all varieties tested will do well under similar growing conditions and planting date. Significant head diameter and plant height were observed among varieties tested.
    • Field Evaluation of Cauliflower Varieties Grown in Southwest Low Desert Soils

      Zerkoune, Mohammed A.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      Selection of adapted varieties to environmental factors and soil types are paramount to growing profitable cauliflower crops. Varieties are selected for uniform maturity, field holding capability, head size, shape and color. The objective of this demonstration trial is to evaluate new and existing commercial varieties under standard field conditions. Seven varieties were planted in a single row and evaluated at Yuma Agricultural Research Center (YAC) for their agronomic characteristics and their commercial values. All varieties tested performed well with an overall rating of 4 or better, indicating that when planted under similar conditions and planting dates, these varieties are expected to do well. However a significant head weight and head diameter difference was observed among varieties tested.
    • Field Evaluation of Crisp-head Lettuce Varieties Grown in Southwest Low Desert Soils

      Zerkoune, Mohammed A.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      Crisp-head lettuce plays an important role in Yuma’s economy. An estimated 51000 acres are cropped to large number of varieties each year with planting season that spreads from late August to March. Three demonstration sites and three planting dates were selected to compare new and existing varieties of head lettuce on growers’ fields using standard farming practices. Selected growth parameters were evaluated throughout the growing season. Results indicate that varieties tested at JV Farms in Welton and at Yuma Agricultural Center (YAC) are expected to do well if grown under similar conditions and planting time. Some varieties tested during the second planting slot on Doug Melon Farm experienced some incidence of diseases. All three planting sites showed a significant head weight difference and two out of three planting sites showed a significant head diameter difference.
    • Halosulfuron for Weed Control in Watermelon

      Umeda, K.; MacNeil, D.; Roberts, D.; Lund, N.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      Halosulfuron at rates ranging from 0.05 to 0.10 lb AI/A with no adjuvant added to the POST application spray did not cause any injury to watermelons. Halosulfuron did not appear to cause significant crop injury earlier in the season to reduce marketable fruit yield at harvest. Halosulfuron was highly effective against London rocket but did not control purslane or groundcherry. Weed control efficacy was improved significantly when Latron CS-7 or Activator-90 was added to halosulfuron at either 0.05 or 0.075 lb AI/A. LI-700 did not improve the activity of halosulfuron over the treatments without an adjuvant.
    • Herbicide Screen for Melons

      Umeda, K.; MacNeil, D.; Lund, N.; Roberts, D.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      Seventeen herbicides recently gaining registrations in corn, soybeans, or other major crops were evaluated in screening tests for potential use in melons. In a preemergence herbicide screening test, flumioxazin, dimethenamid, halosulfuron, and s-metolachlor demonstrated melon crop safety at rates higher than rates for effective weed control. In a postemergence screening test, halosulfuron and rimsulfuron gave acceptable weed control with adequate crop safety. Flumetsulam and thifensulfuron appeared to offer some acceptable weed control with a very narrow margin of crop safety. Herbicides that did not offer adequate melon crop safety or acceptable weed control in the screening tests were carfentrazone, sulfentrazone, cloransulam, flumiclorac, fluthiamide/metribuzin, imazamox, isoxaflutole, triflusulfuron, primisulfuron/prosulfuron, and clomazone.
    • Impact and Management of Western Flower Thrips on Romaine Lettuce

      Palumbo, John; Mullis, Clayton Jr.; Reyes, Francisco; Amaya, Andreas; Ledesma, Luis; Cary, Lisa; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      A season-long study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of several conventional, experimental and bio-based insecticide combinations used in rotation against western flower thrips (WFT) in romaine lettuce. Results from this study showed that several insecticide rotational programs provided good control of WFT populations throughout the season. Adult abundance peaked just prior to the fourth spray on 28 March, whereas larvae numbers peaked about 2 weeks earlier on March 13. Fluctuations of larval and adult populations observed from weekly samples suggests that greater than 3 WFT generations developed during the experimental period. Averaged across all sample dates, the Success, Lannate and Warrior based rotations maintained adult and larval populations at significantly lower levels than all other treatments. The Bio-based, organic rotations (Neem/Garlic/COC/Sulfur/Diatect) did not differ from the untreated check. Percentage reduction of WFT larvae and adults compared with the untreated control was significantly greater following sprays which contained Success combinations. Consistent with reduction in WFT numbers, the Success/Lannate/Warrior, and Dimethoate based rotations resulted in significantly greater yields and less damage. Regression analysis suggests that larvae and total thrips abundance more consistently describes the variation measured in plant weights. Overall, this preliminary data further indicates that maintaining WFT abundance at low levels is important for maintaining romaine yield and quality.
    • Lettuce Variety Trial

      Clark, L. J.; Walser, R.; Carpenter, E. W.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      Eleven head lettuce varieties and four leaf lettuce varieties were grown in a replicated small plot trial on the Safford Agricultural Center in 1998. Desertgreen variety of head lettuce from Harris Moran produced a crop with the best head weight, size and firmness rating. Premiere variety followed closely behind. Of the leaf lettuce varieties tested, Saguaro Romaine produced the best quality and quantity product. Per acre yields are calculated for each variety in the study.
    • Management of Western Flower Thrips in Head Lettuce with Conventional and Botanical Insecticides

      Palumbo, John; Mullis, Clayton Jr.; Reyes, Francisco; Amaya, Andreas; Ledesma, Luis; Cary, Lisa; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      Studies were conducted in three independent field trials to evaluate the efficacy of conventional and botanical insecticides against western flower thrips in head lettuce. Trials were conducted in spring lettuce under moderate and heavy populations pressures. Actara and Avaunt, two new experiential insecticides did not significantly control adults and provided only marginal activity against the larvae when applied alone. Combination of these products with either Lannate or Warrior significantly enhanced control, but usually not greater than that shown from the Lannate or Warrior applied alone. Several botanical products were evaluated (azadirachtin, pyrethrins, crop oils and garlic). Unfortunately, none of the botanical products significantly reduced thrips numbers to economically acceptable levels of control. Similar to previous studies, our results suggest that even the most efficacious products appeared to maintain thrips populations at constant levels and not necessarily reducing their numbers. More research needs to be conducted to determine the proper timing of applications to achieve optimal thrips using both conventional and botanical insecticides.
    • Melon Variety Trial

      Clark, L. J.; Walser, R.; Carpenter, E. W.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      Seven cantaloupe varieties and two Honeydew melon varieties were grown in a replicated small plot trial on the Safford Agricultural Center in 1998. Varieties were picked regularly during the growing season. Yields are shown in tabular form to indicate how each variety performed during the season.
    • New Chemistry and Pyrethroid Combinations for Lepidopterous Pest Control in Broccoli

      Umeda, K.; MacNeil, D.; Lund, N.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      Success, Proclaim, and Avaunt were efficacious when applied alone or in combination with the pyrethroids, Warrior or Mustang. Warrior and Mustang alone also provided excellent control of the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni, CL) and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella, DBM) at all rating dates for 3 weeks after a single application. Low infestation levels of the pests were attributed to the effectiveness of the insecticides.
    • New Insecticides for Diamondback Moth Control in Cabbage

      Umeda, K.; MacNeil, D.; Roberts, D.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      At 3 days after the first application, RH-2485, Success, Proclaim, Avaunt, and Larvin reduced the total number of diamondback moth (DBM) larvae to less than 2.0 larvae per 10 plants compared to the untreated that had 7.0 larvae/10 plants. Alert, Kryocide, and S-1812 treated cabbage exhibited 4.0 to 5.0 larvae/10 plants and Lannate was intermediate with 2.7 total larvae/10 plants. Following a second application, Success and Proclaim completely controlled DBM for one week. Success, Proclaim, Alert, and Larvin continued to offer very good control of DBM for two weeks after the second application. S-1812 performed similarly to Lannate.
    • Performance of New Chemistries for Control of Powdery Mildew of Cantaloupe in 1999

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      Powdery mildew on melons is an annual disease problem in Arizona. Sphaerotheca fuliginea is the plant pathogenic fungus that causes powdery mildew of cucurbits, which include cantaloupe, honeydew, watermelon, cucumber and squash. When environmental conditions are favorable, disease incidence and severity can reach economically significant levels. Factors that favor development of powdery mildew on melons include moderate temperatures and relative humidity, succulent plant growth, and reduced light intensity brought about by a dense plant canopy. Potential new fungicides were evaluated and compared to existing chemicals for control of powdery mildew of cantaloupe in a field trial conducted during the spring of 1999 at the Yuma Agricultural Center. A high level of disease had developed by crop maturity (June 29). On nontreated plants 43% of the upper leaf surface was covered by powdery mildew, whereas the level on the underside of leaves was 78%.. All of the 34 different treatments significantly reduced the level of powdery mildew on both sides of leaves, compared to nontreated plants. The best treatments among those tested with respect to disease control on the underside of leaves, where disease control is more difficult than on the tops of leaves, included Topsin+Trilogy, Benlate, Benlate+Trilogy, Quadris, A815, Topsin+Microthiol, and Topsin. The potential availability of new chemistries for management of powdery mildew of cantaloupe and other cucurbits could help improve overall control of powdery mildew as well as the implementation of fungicide resistance management strategies, which strive to minimize the risk of resistance development by the pathogen to these compounds.
    • Population Dynamics and Distribution of Aphid Species on Head Lettuce in the Yuma Valley

      Palumbo, John; Mullis, Clayton Jr.; Reyes, Francisco; Amaya, Andreas; Ledesma, Luis; Cary, Lisa; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      Studies were conducted in the 1999/2000 growing season to examine the population dynamics and field distribution of aphid species on winter and spring head lettuce crops. Seven, 0.25 acre planting of head lettuce were established beginning in October with final harvest occurring in April. Plant samples were conducted weekly to estimate the numbers of both alate (winged) and apterous (wingless) green peach aphids, potato aphids, cowpea aphids and lettuce aphids. Lettuce aphids were more abundant this spring than anticipated, which may indicate that lettuce aphid may be a new pest for Yuma growers. However, based on a single years data, it is difficult to measure the threat that this aphid poses to the lettuce industry. Planting date and temperature likely has a strong influence on seasonal abundance of lettuce aphids. Similarly, the consistent appearance of cowpea aphids during the season was surprising , considering that it has seldom been observed on desert lettuce. Perhaps most surprising though was the low population abundance of green peach and potato aphids in out plots. Part of this unusual event may be due to the unseasonably warm, dry growing season that was experienced this year.
    • Predicting Dispersal by Whitefly Parasitoids

      Byrne, David N.; Bellamy, David E.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti; Department of Entomology (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      These experiments were designed to examine short-range dispersal by the small whitefly parasitoid Eretmocerus eremicus that takes place within the confines of a specifically defined habitat. We were specifically concerned with the impacts of sex and mating status on their dispersal. We hoped to construct predictive models concerning dispersal. In a vertical flight chamber we found that female flight duration was significantly longer (11 times) than that of males and that unmated parasitoids flew approximately three times longer than mated individuals. In field studies 87% of the 4,153 parasitoids captured were males. This occurred in spite of sex ratios being near 1:1 upon release. The difference in dispersal characteristics between males and females may be resource based. It is felt that certain requirements were met within our field plots for males that were not met for females. It is important for males to find mates and they may have done so inside release containers or in close proximity to release sites. While females have a similar requirement, they must also find whitefly hosts to parasitize. It can be assumed that each sex took active steps to accomplish different goals. Males were searching the immediate area of the release sites where mates were plentiful, while females were leaving the 33 ft. radius plots in search of whitefly hosts. We were able to verify models for male dispersal (75% of males were predicted to disperse within 13.5 ft.). Our models predicted that 50% of females would be found within 82 ft. This information will useful when describing movement by E. eremicus and other small insects. It should prove useful when defining release techniques for parasitoids being used as biological control agents.
    • Pro-active Management of Beet Armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) Resistance to IGRs, Tebufenozide and Methoxyfenozide

      Moulton, John K.; Pepper, David A.; Dennehy, Timothy J.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti; Extension Arthropod Resistance Management Laboratory, Department of Entomology (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-08)
      Susceptibility to tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide of beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) from the southern United States and Thailand was determined through exposure of first and third instar larvae to dipped cotton leaves. LC50 estimates of first instar larvae ranged from 0.377 to 32.7 micrograms of tebufenozide per milliliter and 0.034 to 11.5 micrograms of methoxyfenozide per milliliter. LC₅₀ estimates of third instar larvae ranged from 4.37 to 715 micrograms of tebufenozide per milliliter and 0.393 to 47.4 micrograms of methoxyfenozide per milliliter. These estimates translated into 87-fold and 164-fold decreases in susceptibility to tebufenozide and 338-fold and 121-fold decreases in susceptibility to methoxyfenozide of first and third instar larvae from a Thailand strain when compared to the most susceptible of eight United States populations evaluated. Among the United States field populations evaluated, a collection from Belle Glade, Florida was the most susceptible and one taken near Parker, Arizona was the least susceptible. Selection of the Thailand population with tebufenozide or methoxyfenozide resulted in significant reductions in susceptibility to both analogs, indicating a common mechanism of resistance. Isolation and characterization of resistance will provide information that will be helpful for pro-active management of resistance for this valuable group of insecticides in the United States.