Turfgrass, Landscape and Urban IPM Research Report 1988
ABOUT THE COLLECTION
The Urban IPM and Turfgrass Research Summary Report is one of several commodity-based agricultural research reports published by the University of Arizona.
This report was first published in 1988.
The purpose of the report is to provide an annual research update to turfgrass managers, landscape professionals and IPM practitioners. The research is conducted by University of Arizona faculty and staff.
Both historical and current issues have been made available via the UA Campus Repository, as part of a collaboration between the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the University Libraries.
David Kopec and Paul Baker are current co-editors of the Urban IPM and Turfgrass Summary. You can email them at firstname.lastname@example.org. You can also visit the CALS Publications website for additional information.
Contents for Turfgrass, Landscape and Urban IPM Research Report 1988
- 1988 Tall Fescue Variety Trial
- Ryegrass Overseed Trials for 1986-1987
- Ryegrass Turf Trials for 1987-1988
- Variation in Flowering and Germination in Hilaria belangeri
- The Influence of Gypsum on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Turfgrass Soils
- Estimating Turfgrass Water Use with AZMET
- The Influence of Effluent Irrigation on Specific Soil Microbial Populations and Parameters
- Effect of Salinity Stress on Development of Pythium Blight of Agrostis palustris
- Chemical Growth Retardant Effects on Easter Lilies
- Chemical Height Control of Florists' Hydrangeas
- Effects of XE-1019 Spray Concentration of Chrysanthemums
- Spray Carrier Volume Effects on XE-1019 and Chrysanthemums
- Spray Carrier Volume and Irrigation Method Effects on XE-1019 Efficacy on Poinsettias
- Use of Growth Retardants for Floral Initiation of Hydrangeas
- Podranea Height Control with XE-1019
- Controlling Hybrid Lily Plant Height with Ancymicol and XE-1019
- Rooting of Stem Cuttings of Mortonia scabrella
- Seed Germination Response of Penstemon spp. To Gibberellic Acid
- Propogation of Baja Fairy Duster (Calliandra Californica) by Stem Tip Cuttings
- Propogation and Nursery Production Studies With New Arid Land Species
- Evaluation of Cold Storage for Unrooted Jojoba Cuttings
- Branch Induction with Cytokinin to Improve Appearance and Increase Cutting Production of Jojoba
- Identification of the Phloem Translocated Carbohydrate in Idria columnaris (Boojum tree)
- Localization of Reserve Remobilization During Scalet Formation on Lilium longiflorum Scales
- Determining Optimum Length of Bulb Cold Storage for Oriental Hybrid Lilies in Arizona
- Correcting Iron Chlorosis in Pyracantha
- Underutilized Native Woody Legumes for Landscape Use
Correcting Iron Chlorosis in PyracanthaThe alkaline nature of most Arizona soils contributes to widespread iron deficiency in exotic ornamental plants, such as pyracantha. An experiment was conducted in 1987 to evaluate the effectiveness of two soil-applied iron fertilizers (FeEDDHA chelate and a jarosite-type iron silicate, Ironite\) and three rates of foliar- applied FeEDDHA in controlling iron chlorosis symptoms in established pyracantha vines. Soil-applied FeEDDHA was the most effective in reducing iron chlorosis symptoms, followed by the foliar chelate treatments. The iron silicate material had no significant effect on iron chloroses symptoms compared to the untreated control. Both soil and foliar applications of FeEDDHA chelate made in the fall can effectively control iron chlorosis symptoms in established pyracantha.
Determining Optimum Length of Bulb Cold Storage for Oriental Hybrid Lilies in ArizonaBulbs of three varieties of oriental hybrid lilies were stored at 4 °C for 6 to 12 weeks prior to greenhouse forcing at 18 °C night temperature. Increasing duration of storage reduced the number of days to shoot emergence, visible flower buck and anthesis for each variety. The number of days from planting to anthesis ranged from 70 to 102 and varied with cultivar and storage duration. Increasing durations of storage had no commercially significant effect on the number of flowers reaching anthesis, number of leaves or aborted flower buds. The varieties used in this study flower earlier than commercially established cultivars and may be successfully forced in Arizona for early spring holidays.
Localization of Reserve Remobilization During Scalet Formation on Lilium longiflorum ScalesWhen Lilium longiflorum bulb scales we removed and placed in a moist environment, new bulbs ("scalets") arise from the base of the original scale, providing a practical means of clonal propagation. To determine which region of the scale is responsible for the early development of the new scalet, investigations were conducted on the localization of stanch hydrolysis and accumulation of soluble sugars in basal distal and central regions. Over a six week period starch concentration decreases initially in the distal regions, followed by the central region. Soluble sugars increased in distal areas over this same time period These findings indicate the distal regions of a lily scale are important in the early development of the new scalet, in contrast to the adjacen4 basal region.
Identification of the Phloem Translocated Carbohydrate in Idria columnaris (Boojum tree)Sucrose was identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as the only phloem-mobile carbohydrate in the Boojum tree. This result has implications for carbohydrate metabolism in the desert adapted Boojum and ocotillo, as discussed below.
Branch Induction with Cytokinin to Improve Appearance and Increase Cutting Production of JojobaTreatment of jojoba plants with foliar sprays of benzyladenine (BA) alone, or in combination with gibberellin(4+7) (GA(4+7)) fatly increased branching frequency compared to untreated control plants and to plants from which all shoot tips were removed (pinched). Use of BA by itself resulted in an adverse reduction in intemode elongation. This was overcome in treatments which included GA(4+7) Use of GA(4+7) by itself resulted in reduced branching and abnormal shoot elongation. Pruning (pinching) of all shoot tips resulted in a slight increase in branching over untreated plants, but it had much less effect on branching than did treatments with BA. Results were very similar on two different clones tested.
Evaluation of Cold Storage for Unrooted Jojoba CuttingsJojoba stem tip cuttings were stored under refrigerated conditions of 34° and 42°F for up to 2 months with no loss in rooting potential. Rooting percent for cuttings of two clones which were rooted with no prior storage was 64.8%. Rooting after 7, 14, 28 and 56 days of storage was 81.7, 72.9, 71.7 and 81.2 %, respectively.
Propogation and Nursery Production Studies With New Arid Land SpeciesSeveral species of low -water requiring species have been successfully propagated through vegetative and sexual means. Auxin treatments and bottom healing were beneficial in many cases. Development of improved propagation schemes, and subsequent growing practices, will increase grower success and profitability, eventually increasing availability of new low water use plants to the Arizona consumer. The long-term result of this work will be the availability of new, low-water use plant species which may be utilized by the homeowner and landscape contractor. The addition of new and exciting plant materials to the consumer market, it is hoped will accelerate the use of arid species in the Arizona landscape, resulting in water savings throughout the state, particularly in urban areas.
Propogation of Baja Fairy Duster (Calliandra Californica) by Stem Tip CuttingsStem tip cuttings of Calliandra californica were treated, prior to rooting with 0, 4,000, 4000, 12,000 or 16,000 ppm IBA in a talc formulation. Rooting was enhanced by application of 12,000 and 16,000 ppm IBA. Root system fresh weight increased with increasing concentration of IBA. No treatment effected percent survival of cuttings.
Seed Germination Response of Penstemon spp. To Gibberellic AcidTreatment of seed with gibberellic acid (GA) resulted in significant increases in germination percent for Penstemon ambiguous, P. barbatus, P. eatoni, P. palmeri, P. parryi. P. pseudospectabilis, P. secundiflorus, and P. strictus in one or both of two experiments which were conducted. Germination of several other species increased with GA treatment, but differences were not significant.
Rooting of Stem Cuttings of Mortonia scabrellaMortonia scabrella can be successfully propagated by stem -tip cuttings during May to September. Better rooting seems to occur during the less stressful months of May and September than in mid-summer. A wide range of rooting response occurs between different clones; the best will root in the range of 70-80%, which should be acceptable in a commercial propagation situation. In one cycle of selection in which the best 3 out of 16 clones were selected for a repeat study, average rooting success increased from 6% to 33 %. Apparently genetic differences for rooting potential occur. Further selection from larger populations, and/or breeding for this trait should result in cutting propagation becoming relatively easy for this species.
Controlling Hybrid Lily Plant Height with Ancymicol and XE-1019Plants of Lilium speciosum hybrids '101' and '298' received one 125 ml soil drench containing 1-3) 0, 0.125, or 0.25 mg ai. ancymidol per pot; or 4-6) 0.05, 0.10, or 0.15 mg a.i. XE-1019 per pot. Ancymidol treatments were less effective in controlling plant height (11 % and 16 % reduction of control plant height) than were XE-1019 treatments (18 %, 26 %, and 34 % reduction of control plant height). Treatments did not affect days from planting to visible bud; days from planting to anthesis of the first flower per inflorescence; the total number of flowers per inflorescence reaching anthesis; or the number of aborting buds per inflorescence. The treatments investigated allowed for rapid production of plants having a commercially acceptable height without a reduction in flowering quality.
Podranea Height Control with XE-1019Foliar sprays of XE -1019 at 3, 4 9, 12, 15, l8 and 36 mg a.i. liter⁻¹ were found to be effective in controlling the height of Podroea ricasoliana However, at higher concentrations (greater than 12 ppm), undesirable leaflet curling and reductions in leaflet size were observed All treatments lost effectiveness in controlling internode elongation during week 4 and 5.
Use of Growth Retardants for Floral Initiation of HydrangeasFloral initiation was successfully stimulated for plants of Hydrangea macrophylla 'Rose Supreme' under non-inductive environmental conditions by spraying plants with XE-1019 or paclobutrazol. Effective treatments were 10 weekly of 5 biweekly sprays of 100 mg-liter ⁻¹ paclobutrazol; 5 biweekly sprays of 11 or 30 mg-liter⁻¹ XE-1019, and 4 triweekly (once every 3 weeks) sprays of 15 or 30 mg-liter⁻¹ XE-1019.
Spray Carrier Volume and Irrigation Method Effects on XE-1019 Efficacy on PoinsettiasPlants of Euphorbia pulchenima Wind. 'Gutbier V-14 Glory Annette Hegg Dark Red', and 'Annette Hegg Brilliant Diamond' were treated with 37 iw a.i. of XE-1019 applied in 102, 204, or 408 ml-m⁻² foliar sprays. Half of the plants received overhead irrigation and the remaining received soil-surface irrigations. No spray carrier volume effect or irrigation effect was observed for final plant height, bract canopy diameter, or for days from start of short days to bloom. The results obtained do not support the hypothesis that spray carrier volume or irrigation method affect the efficacy of XE-1019 on poinsettias.
Spray Carrier Volume Effects on XE-1019 and ChrysanthemumsPlant of Chysanthemum morífolium Rymat. 'Ovaio' received 0, 102, 204, 304 or 408 ml-m⁻² of 0, 40, 20, 13.3, and 10 mg-liter⁻¹ XE-1019, respectively. No treatment affected time from start of short days to bloom or inflorescence display diameter. All XE-1019 treatments resulted in shorter plants than controls did. No carrier volume effect on plant height was observed. The inflorescence height range per pot decreased with increasing carrier volume. The greater inflorescence height uniformity achieved with the high carrier volume is beneficial and warrants further investigation.
Effects of XE-1019 Spray Concentration of ChrysanthemumsPlants of Chrysanthemum moifolium Ramat. 'Ovaro' received 0, 10, 20, or 30 mg-liter ⁻¹ XE-1019 applied as a 204 ml-m⁻² foliar spray. Treatments did not affect time from start of short days to bloom or inflorescence height lunge. Inflorescence height and inflorescence display diameter both were reduced with increasing concentration of XE-1019.
Chemical Height Control of Florists' HydrangeasXE-1019 (2 foliar sprays of 10, 2Q or 30 mg-liter⁻¹) was applied to plants of Hydrangea macrophylla Ser. 'Rose Supreme' during greenhouse forcing. Doses applied resulted in excessive reductions in shoot elongation and inflorescence diameters and delayed anthesis. Shoot growth was reduced with increasing XE-1019 concentration. Shoot length was reduced 46 %; stem dry weight was reduced 31 %; leaf area per shoot was reduced 44 %; inflorescence height was cut by 45 %; and inflorescence mass was reduced 48% with the 30 mg-liter⁻¹ XE-1019 treatment. Specific leaf weight increased with increased XE -1019 concentration (192% increase with the 30 mg-liter⁻¹ treatment) resulting in thicker leaves at anthesis. XE-1019 is an effective height control agent for florists' hydrangeas, and shows significant activity at very low (less than 0.2 mg a.i. per plant) doses.
Chemical Growth Retardant Effects on Easter LiliesPlants of Lilium longiflontm Thunb. 'Nellie White' recei,yed the following treatments during forcing: 1) control; 2-3) gne or two sprays of 50 mg-liter ancymidol 4-9) one or two sprays of 5, la, or 15 mg-liter XE-1019; or 10) one spray of 20 mg-liter XE-1019. All growth retardant treatments reduced plant height compared to controls. Plant height decreased linearly with increasing concentration of XE-1019 for both one- and two-spray treatments. High concentrations of XE-1019 delayed anthesis; ancymidol treatments did not. Individual corolla length was not affected by treatments. Treatments did not affect daughter bulb depletion or new daughter bulb growth. Total leaf area and leaf dry weight decreased as XE-1019 concentration increased; ancymidol treatments did not affect leaf area, but did reduce leaf dry weight. Leaf total soluble carbohydrate decreased with increasing concentration of XE-1019.
Effect of Salinity Stress on Development of Pythium Blight of Agrostis palustrisSalinity stress predisposed cultivar Penncross creeping bentgrass to cottony blight caused by Pythium aphanidennatum at two temperature regimes. At 25-32 C, complete necrosis of all inoculated plants occurred at electrical conductivity (Ec) levels from 4.3-7.1 ds/m in 2 days, whereas at Ec levels of 0.5-2.8 ds/m death occurred within 3 days. At 25-27 C, complete necrosis of all inoculated plants occurred at Ec levels from 4.3-7.1 ds /m within a period of 5 days; no death was observed in control or inoculated plants at an Ec level of 0.5 ds/m. Increased salinity levels apparently affected the bentgrass rather than P. aphanidermatum. Mycelia' growth rate of the fungus was increased only slightly by salinity levels up to 7.1 ds/m. Zoospore production of P. aphanidermatum and two other species of Pythium decreased with increasing salinity levels up to 7.1 ds/m; production was completely inhibited at 14.2 ds/m.