• Repeat Applications of Paclobutrazole (TGR) Plant Growth Regulator on Overseeded Bermudagrass Turf: Weed Control and Bermudagrass Transition

      Kopec, David M.; Gilbert, Jeff J.; Pessarakli, Mohammed; Nolan, Steve; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2009-02)
      TGR (paclobutrazole) was applied to both overseeded and non-overseeded turfs in repeat monthly applications at either 8.0 oz or 12.0 oz product/1000 ft² rates. Applications were made in repeat monthly intervals to apply either three, four or five repeat applications beginning in December 2007, and ending in April 2008. When applied as a post emergent PGR material, TGR caused only a slight decrease in turfgrass color and quality of overseeded turfs in March at the high (and repeated) rate of 12.0 oz/product/acre. This effect was short lived, as overseeded turfs for the remainder of the season maintained fully acceptable color and quality through the spring transition period. Tenacity turfs always had quality scores of 6.0 or higher throughout the test. Seed head suppression was realized from TGR, with greater head suppression at the 12.0 oz rate than that of the 8.0 oz rate. Bermudagrass transition among TGR treated turfs was not different from that of the untreated controls, whether the turfs were overseeded or not. On 20 June 2008, percent bermudagrass plot cover ranged from 29-58% for TGR treated turfs, 40% for Tenacity, while the overseeded UTC had 35%, on average. The percent bermudagrass increased quickly after a 2.0 lb. /N /M application on June 20, to 68% to 90% bermudagrass cover for TGR treated turfs (UTC = 83%). After a scalping event (from 1.25 inches to 0.50 inches) performed on July 1, percent bermudagrass decreased temporarily (from bermudagrass removal), but rebounded within 15 days to yield 96% to 99% bermudagrass cover by the close of the test on 31 July, 2008. Like wise, Tenacity alone did not inhibit transition, as Tenacity treated turfs had bermudagrass cover slightly greater than that of the overseeded controls.
    • Turfgrass Systems for Saline Irrigation Water

      Walworth, James; Kopec, David M.; Pond, Andrew; Gilbert, Jeff J.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2009-02)
      Seashore Paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) is a warm-season halophyte with excellent salt tolerance after establishment. In areas which require overseeding, there is a need for a cool-season counterpart suitable for over-seeding. The goal of this field research is to evaluate a year-round turfgrass system for saline conditions using perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), alkaligrass (Puccinellia distans), and a combination of perennial ryegrass and Puccinellia as the cool-season grasses. In the summer months, paspalum quality and density were reduced when overseeded with ryegrass or with a combination of puccinellia and ryegrass. Ryegrass quality and density decreased slightly as irrigation water salinity was increased from 0 to 3000 to 6000 mg/L. In addition, the percentage of cover by overseeded ryegrass decreased significantly when 6000 mg/L irrigation water was applied. Puccinellia was much more sensitive to salinity than ryegrass and overall quality, turf density, and percent cover by puccinellia were greatly reduced by addition of salt. However, in the absence of added salt, puccinellia quality, percent cover, density, and color were generally greater than that of ryegrass. The puccinellia/ryegrass overseed mixture generally performed intermediate relative to either grass alone.
    • Use of Select Herbicides for Pre and Post Emergence Control of Poa annua When Overseeding Bermudagrass with Perennial Ryegrass

      Kopec, David M.; Gilbert, Jeff J.; Pessarakli, Mohammed; Nolan, Steve; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2009-02)
      Overseeding bermudagrass turf with perennial ryegrass is essentially a standard practice in south western turfgrass maintenance. This practice complicates (and often negates) the pre-emergence control of Poa annua (PA) which germinates within the overseeding window. Outplay (mesotrione) was applies as pre , post and pre+post applications to control PA in golf turf (overseed on October 2, 2006). Outplay was applied with Trimmit as a post emergence treatment. Barricade and Barricade + Monument were applied post emergence. On non overseeded turf: The greatest amount of (PA) weed control was achieved by the treatment of Barricade 16 ounce/product/acre (8WBOS) and Monument 16 gm (2WBOS) (Table 3). This treatment had no PA initially (2 November) 93% control on 17 November, and 7 December, 90% control on 4 January, dropping to 77% control by 16 February. Outplay applied pre-emergence as a sole treatment had little or no affect on PA, providing essentially no control. This was even true for the high rate of 16 ounces of product, applied 1 week before overseeding. Outplay applied both pre/post at eight ounces also had little effect on PA. The same was true for Outplay applied as two post emergence treatments [( 8 + 8 ) or (16 + 16) ounce rates] (Table 3). Prograss had a maximum weed control of 50% on January 4, sixteen days after its repeat application of 64 ounce. The post emergence tank mix of Outplay and Trimmit, followed by Trimmit alone had a maximum of 50% (PA) weed control on January 4, which declined afterwards. Overseeded Turf: Barricade and Barricade plus Monument had good control initially (94% 16 February), noting that the addition of Monument increased percent weed control by 10% in March (Table 8). Outplay applied alone as a pre-emergence product, had minimal control, with the high rate of 16 ounces applied 1 week before overseeding providing nominal weed control (65%, 41%, 58%) on 16 February, 15 March, 26 March, respectively. Outplay applied as a post emergence treatment only, exhibited good to moderate weed control, with the 16 and 16 ounce repeat treatments having better weed control than the 8 ounce plus 8 ounce treatments (applied 8 weeks and 12 weeks after overseeding, respectively). The 16 and 16 ounce treatment had 100%, 82% and 78% weed control on 16 February, 15 March, and 26 March, respectively (Table 8). Prograss applied twice as a post emergence provided similar levels of PA control (100%, 85%, 89%) on those same dates, respectively. Finally, when Outplay was applied as a post emergence treatment with Trimmit, weed control was good to moderate, providing 88%, 67%, and 78% weed control on overseeded turfs on 16 February, 15 March, and 26 March, respectively (Table 8). The affect of overseeding itself based on NTC means of overseeding and nonoverseed turfs (no herbicides) showed that overseeding alone suppressed PA by 93% on 16 February, 91% on 15 March and 59% on 26 March.
    • Use of Velocity for Post Emergence Control of (AB) in Overseeded Turf

      Kopec, David M.; Gilbert, Jeff J.; Nolan, Steve; Pessarakli, Mohammed; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2009-02)
      Velocity herbicide was applied alone, or with mixtures of Tourney fungicide and/or Primo PGR for the post emergence control/suppression of Poa annua (var. annua) in bermudagrass overseeded with perennial ryegrass. When applied alone as a repeat applications, Velocity herbicide applied at 15 and 30 gm ai/a was safe on perennial ryegrass overseed (based on color response). Velocity was safe for the overseed ryegrass when tank mixed with Tourney fungicide, both with and without the addition of Primo PGR. Tourney fungicide when applied alone at either 8 or 16 oz./product/acre produced no negative affects. As expected, Primo alone produced a dark color turf (7.8, 7.5, 7.0, and 7.0) on all four dates, respectively. Several treatments caused moderate injury to the (AB) across the entire test period. These included Velocity alone at the 15 gm/ai/a rate, and Velocity @ 30 gm ai/a plus Tourney @ 8 oz.prod/acre. The greatest amount of injury to (AB) occurred on 3/11/2008 for Velocity at 30 gm ai/a, either with or without Tourney fungicide. Although visible injury to Poa annua resulted after treatments were applied, seed head suppression was the most consistent treatment response. While injury to the Poa was severe for some treatments (Velocity plus Tourney fungicide), the Poa annua did return, ranging from re-growth as "weak plants" to an actively growing turfs (as is sometimes typical after a surviving injury response). Based on results, perhaps a tank mix application of Velocity at 30 gm ai/a along with 8 oz. product/acre of Tourney and 6 oz./acre of Primo, followed by a repeat application 35 days later may provide the ultimate seed head suppression.
    • Velocity* Herbicide for Poa annua Control in Turf

      Umeda, Kai; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2009-02)
      Velocity* at 20 g a.i./A provided P. annua control better than at 10 g a.i./A. Velocity at 20 or 30 g a.i./A offered similar P. annua control with a single application. Velocity at 20 g a.i./A with the addition of non-ionic surfactant Latron CS-7* or Primo*, P. annua control was almost similar to that of Prograss* at 80%. Velocity at 10 g a.i./A combinations or at 20 g a.i./A without additives gave less than 75% control.