Turfgrass, Landscape and Urban IPM Research Report 2004
ABOUT THE COLLECTION
The Urban IPM and Turfgrass Research Summary Report is one of several commodity-based agricultural research reports published by the University of Arizona.
This report was first published in 1988.
The purpose of the report is to provide an annual research update to turfgrass managers, landscape professionals and IPM practitioners. The research is conducted by University of Arizona faculty and staff.
Both historical and current issues have been made available via the UA Campus Repository, as part of a collaboration between the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the University Libraries.
David Kopec and Paul Baker are current co-editors of the Urban IPM and Turfgrass Summary. You can email them at firstname.lastname@example.org. You can also visit the CALS Publications website for additional information.
Contents for Turfgrass, Landscape and Urban IPM Research Report 2004Urban IPM
- School IPM
- Subterranean Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) Mortality Due to Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Nematoda:Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae)
- Interactive Effects of Salinity and Primo on the Growth of Kentucky Bluegrass
- Evaluation of Pyrus Interspecific Hybrids in Arizona from 2001 – 2004
- Growth of Legume Tree Species Growing in the Southwestern United States
- Controlling Rhizoctonia Root Rot in Bedding Plants
- Forcing Containerized Roses in a Retractable Roof Greenhouse and Outdoors in a Semi-Arid Climate
- Alternatives for Tree Staking
- Response of Nitrate and Ammonium on Growth of Prosopis Velutina and Simmondsia Chinensis Seedlings
- Nitrogen Requirements of Prosopis Velutina during Early Seedling Growth
- Effect of Planting Hole Size and Amendments on Growth and Establishment of Acacia farnesiana
Herbicides and Weed Control
- Efficacy of Herbicides for Nutsedge Control in Turf
- Evaluation and Comparison of Spotlight* Herbicide Combinations for Khakiweed Control in Turf
- The Effect of Sulfonylurea (SU) Herbicides on Establishment of Seeded Bermudagrass when Applied to Remove Perennial Ryegrass Turf
- Evaluation of Velocity* Herbicide for Poa annua Control in Turf
- Velocity Herbicide for Poa Control in Overseeded Turf
- AEF 130360 Overseeding Safety
- Application of Proxy PGR for Poa Seed Head Suppression, 2000
- Evaluation of Timing Applications of Ethephon and Trinexepac-Ethyl for Seed Head Suppression of Poa annua
- Foramsulfuron Effects on Emergence of Seeded Turf-Type Bermudagrass
- Late Season Application for Efficacy Screening of Select Herbicides for Post-Emergence Control of Khakiweed
- Penoxsulam as a Potential Post-Emergence for Khakiweed (Alternanthera pungens)
- Effect of Salinity on Symptom Development of Rapid Blight on Perennial Rye
- Influence of pH 11 Water on Termiticide Degradation in Arizona
- Can Applied ABA be Used in Desert Turfgrass Management?
- ET Rates of Distichlis (Inland Saltgrass) Clones A119, A48,Sea Isle 1 Sea Shore Paspalum and Tifway Bermudagrass
- Comparison of Sulfonylurea Herbicides for Spring Transition
- Response and Nutrient Uptake in Bermudagrass Treated with Aquatrols Surfactant ACA 1848 in the Desert Southwest
- Growth Responses of Zoysiagrass Influenced by Different Rates of Bio-Turf-Pro
- Growth Responses of Bermudagrass to Different Levels of Nutrients in the Culture Medium
- Aquatrols Surfactant Study on Turfgrass Nutrient Uptake
- Best Management Practices for Sea Isle 2000 Surface Conditions as a Putting Green Turf Under Desert Conditions
- Observations of TADS Foramsulfuron Formulations on Sea Isle I Paspalum as Affected by Mowing Height and Foliar Applied Iron
- Response of Common Bermudagrass Sports Turf to Select Herbicides Used for Spring Transition Enhancement
- Response of Sea Isle 2000 Paspalum to Mowing Height and Nitrogen Fertility as a Putting Surface Under Semi-Arid Conditions; Two Year Report
- Response of Sea Isle I Paspalum to Fertilization and Mowing for Tee and Fairway Turf
- Spring Greenup of Dormant Non-Overseeded Bermudagrass
- Spring Transition of Tifway (419) Bermudagrass as Influenced by Herbicide Treatments
- TADS 14776, Manor, Kerb and Corsair Herbicides for Use as Spring Transition Aids in Overseeded Common Bermudagrass Turf
- Use of Foramsulfuron (TADS) as a Transition Agent for Removing Perennial Ryegrass Overseed from Tifway 419 Bermudagrass
- Use of Foramsufulron (TADS) as a Transition Agent to Remove Poa Trivialis from an Overseeded Tifgreen Bermudagrass Putting Green
- Use of TADS and Other Select Herbicides for Use as Spring Transition Agents in Turfgrass Management
- Evaluation of Fungicides for Control of Rapid Blight of Poa trivialis (2003)
- Evaluation of Fungicides for Control of Rapid Blight of Poa trivialis (2002)
- Investigations of the Host Range of Labyrinthula terrestris, a New Turfgrass Pathogen
- Infection of Selected Turfgrasses by Labyrinthula terrestris
- Response of Cool Season Turfs when Overseeded on a Putting Green with a History of Rapid Blight Disease
- Rove Beetle Control Using Selected Insecticide Agents on Bentgrass Greens Turf
USGA Distichlis Report University of Arizona Summer 2003The U/A twenty-one clone saltgtrass accession nursery received a mowing height of 7/8" (or less) in 2003. In spring of 2003, clonal accessions C-8, A51, A53, and A138 produced the quickest green-up in early April. Accessions with good quality turf performance in spring/early summer included A138, A51, C-8, A65, A48, and A53. Starting in July, all plots were split with a rolling treatment (850 lb. roller, 2 passes, 2-3 times weekly) up until early October. The main effect of rolling caused increased positive responses for certain clonal accessions, others showed no response, while yet others showed decreased performance from the rolling treatment. Rolling increased positive turf responses among turf clones with showed good turf quality when not rolled. This occurred for nine of the twenty-one clones in this test, all when mowed 3 times weekly at 7/8". Accumulated rolling increased turf performance to enhanced and acceptable levels of quality (6.0 or greater) by the end of September. This was true for nine of the twenty-one clones as well. Accessions, which produced good quality turf (after rolling started in June) throughout the summer, included the following: A138, A65, A86, A137, A48, A51, and A40. Accessions which produced the best quality turfs when unrolled included A138. Likewise, turf density visual scores produced similar accession X rolling interactions. Eleven of the twenty-one clones produced a denser appearing turf after rolling, nine of which had mean visual density scores within the range of 6.3 - 8.7, when rolled. This enhanced response to rolling improved the overall appearance (turf quality) of select clonal accessions over their unrolled counterparts. Initial response to repeated rolling and lower mowing heights showed a favorable response among certain clonal accessions.
Overseed Performance of Sea Isle 2000 Seashore PaspalumThe new Seashore paspalum 'Sea Isle 2000' is being used as a greens surface in many tropical - semi tropical climates were saline water is available for irrigation. While it’s color retention in the fall in Tucson Arizona is good, it still enters full winter dormancy, and requires overseeding with a cool season grass for late fall, winter, and spring play. A two year test was conducted to evaluate the tolerance of Sea Isle 2000 to overseeding, and to evaluate overall turf performance of perennial ryegrass (PR), Poa trivialis (PT) and a mixture of the two when used for overseeding over Sea Isle 2000. PT alone was slow to establish as an overseed in year one, but not in year two. Turfgrass color, quality density and texture were acceptable throughout the test, noting that the 100% perennial ryegrass plot demonstrated a short-term loss of performance during the cold January of 2004. After the initial grow in period, absolute BRD was greatest when growing conditions were less than optimum in mid-winter, and again at the seasons end at the beginning of spring transition (May). This was true in both years. BRD was generally not different between the three overseeding regimes, either when turfs were double mowed prior to BRD measurements, or when a single rolling event was added on the day that BRD was assessed. The 100% PR overseed treatment showed the largest numerical increases in BRD from rolling. This was 6.5 inches in year one and 9.2 inches in year two. Yearly BRD averages of all overseeded surfaces for turfs that were double mowed in year one ranged from 91.5 to 92.4 inches, and in year two from 92.2 to 93.3 inches. Average yearly BRD values among all overseed turfs when rolling was included (including double mowing) in year one ranged from 95.8 to 98.2 inches and from 99.2 to 100.5 inches in year two. Maximum BRD values obtained were 107.8 and 114.3 inches in year one, and 100.0 and 111.1 inches in year two for the mowed only turfs, and mowed and rolled turfs, respectively.
2002-2003 Overseeding Turf TrialsSixty-four overseed turf entries were evaluated from October 2002, to June 2003 for turf when overseeded on Tifway bermudagrass fairway turf. Overseed entries included 43 single variety (or experimental synthetics) of perennial ryegrass, 2 annual ryegrasses, 6 entries of intermediate or 'hybrid' ryegrass, 5 entries of Poa trivialis (PT), one blend of perennial ryegrass, 4 mixtures (two or more species together) and 3 fescues. The main effect of "overseed grass entry" was highly significant on all dates for all visual turf responses, which included establishment, color quality, density, texture, and spring transition. The greatest amount of variation occurred within the perennial ryegrass group as a whole, showing the diversity within this species for overseeding performance. Annual ryegrass provided quick germination and ground coverage in the fall and a quick spring transition, but was of poor turf quality. Intermediate ryegrasses had performance values between that of perennial and annual ryegrass, some of which provided moderately good turf performance and good transition. Poa trivialis was slow to establish, but provided good quality and excellent plot texture, however they had poor transitional qualities. Final quality mean scores ranged from 3.0 (P-02-0047 PT) to 7.7. There were three entries, which averaged 7.7 at the close of the test, which included Mach 1 PR, SR 4500 PR, and Pace PR. The entries IG-2, Greenville PR, Express PR, Bar LO 2001, Hawkeye, Partee finished at 7.3 for quality. Among the intermediate ryegrass entries, Froghair finished with a mean quality score of 7.0, followed by Pick 00- A-LH (5.3). All three fescues produced mean quality scores of 6.0 or better on 8 June (Hardtop fescue leading at 6.7 for quality). The Labarinth tall fescue did have 62% Bermuda at the end of the test, compared to 65% for all entries at that time. Entries which had a mean quality score of 7.0 or more in June, along with a bermuda transition of close to 75% or more at the termination of the test included the following entries; Citation Fore, Mach 1, BarGold, Bar LP 2001, Pace, Greenville OSP, and Express.
Rove Beetle Control Using Selected Insecticide Agents on Bentgrass Greens TurfRove beetles (Osorius planifrons) can and often do cause extensive surface disruption on turf mowed at greens height. Two rates (1x and 2x of product label rate) of Crusade (fonophos), Sevin (carbaryl), DeltaGard (deltamethrin), and Chipco Choice (fipronil), were applied on September 28, 2001 on an SR1020 creeping bentgrass green. Percent rove beetle control was nearly 100% for DeltaGard at 9, 15 and 32 days after treatment, regardless of rate. Crusade had nearly 100% control at either rate at 9 days after treatment, which decreased slightly to 90-93% control by 15 days after treatment. Deltamethrin maintained 95% and 98% control at the 1x and 2x rates respectively, at the close of the test (32 DAT). Crusade maintained 93% and 98% control at the 1x and 2x rates at 32 DAT. Chipco Choice had a maximum control of 24% at 7 DAT when applied at the 1x rate, and a maximum control of 57% at 32 DAT when applied at the 2x rate. Sevin provided low levels of control which peaked at 53% at the 1x rate at 9 DAT, which decreased immediately afterwards. Delta-Gard and Crusade provided excellent control levels of rove beetles on SR1020 bentgrass greens.
Response of Cool Season Turfs when Overseeded on a Putting Green with a History of Rapid Blight DiseaseRapid blight disease is a potentially devastating disease on cool season overseed turfs when irrigated with saline water. A two year test was conducted on a closely mowed Tifgreen bermudagrass turf which was infected with visual symptoms of necrotic patches of turf, and various degrees of blighting. The test included a broad representation of turf species for overseeding in an effort to (1) determine selected specie/cultivar susceptibility and disease expression to rapid blight in the field and (2) survey and assess the association of laboratory isolate detection from field sampling, with disease occurrence and severity of expression of field maintained overseed turf. Over a two year period, Rapid blight, caused by Labyrinthula terrestris was capable of infesting most cool season grasses in this test. In year one, Dawson CRF, SRX 555 slender creeping red fescue, and SR 105210 slender creeping red fescue showed no positive lab detection results from field plots. In year two (2003-2004), only SRX 555 SLQ had only 1 plot known to carry Labyrinthula throughout the main infestation season. In year two, essentially all turf plots showed some symptomology of disease expression. This was confirmed by lab identification. Tiller infection rates varied from 2% to 80% infection in the lab from field samples. The relationship between tiller infection rates and field plot disease expression was determined by Pearson’s product and Spearman Rank correlation coefficients. Field plot disease scores were correlated with percent tiller infection rates, R² = -0.56 plot basis, and R² = –0.71 treatment mean basis, respectively. Spearman Rank correlation coefficients were R² =; -0.62 on a plot basis, and R² =–0.78 based on treatment means Agreement between the disease condition (yes/no) vs. lab findings (positive/negative) occurred on 51 of 59 plot cases, and was significant compared to chance alone occurrences. Over two years, entries which had low disease scores included Fult’s alkali grass, Dawson creeping red fescue, SRX 555 SLQ slender creeping red fescue, SR 5210 slender creeping red fescue, and Providence creeping bentgrass. Over two years, entries which produced high field disease rating scores included SR 3100 Hard fescue, TransEze intermediate ryegrass, SR 4400 perennial ryegrass, SR 7200 velvet bentgrass, SR 7100 colonial bentgrass, Sabre and Laser Poa trivialis, and Redtop.
Infection of Selected Turfgrasses by Labyrinthula terrestrisA number of turfgrasses were screened in the greenhouse and laboratory for susceptibility to Labyrinthula terrestris, a new turfgrass pathogen that causes rapid blight of cool season turfgrasses. Salt tolerant varieties and warm season grasses such as Bermuda grass, tufted hairgrass, inland saltgrass, centipede grass, seashore paspalum and kikuyugrass were not susceptible; cool season grasses such as velvet bentgrass, annual ryegrass, perennial ryegrass, annual bluegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, and rough bluegrass were very susceptible.
Investigations of the Host Range of Labyrinthula terrestris, a New Turfgrass PathogenNon-salt tolerant cultivars of rice, lettuce and radish as well as salt tolerant varieties of alfalfa, barley, and wheat were screened in the greenhouse and laboratory to determine if Labyrinthula terrestris, a new turfgrass pathogen, could infect plants other than turfgrasses. Wheat, barley and rice plants were infected, symptomatic and died. Radish and lettuce were infected but nonsymptomatic. Alfalfa was not infected and exhibited no symptoms. Results indicate that L. terrestris is capable of infecting and causing symptoms in plants other than cool season turfgrasses.
Evaluation of Fungicides for Control of Rapid Blight of Poa trivialis (2002)Rapid blight is a new disease of cool season turf grasses that has occurred on several golf courses in Arizona over the past five years. It is now known to be caused by a Labyrinthula sp., an organism in a group referred to as the marine slime molds. A trial was conducted in fall 2002 to evaluate efficacy of selected fungicides for control of rapid blight at a golf course in central Arizona with a previous history of disease. Plots were established in October 2002 on a practice green on which Bermuda was overseeded with Poa trivialis. Treatments included Compass, Insignia, Fore, Eagle and Aqueduct in various combinations and application dates. Disease symptoms appeared several days after the first mowing and continued for over three months. Results indicate that both pre- and post-plant applications of Fore and post-plant applications of Insignia and Compass gave good control. The best results were obtained with the treatment of Fore combined with Compass that included a pre-plant application of Fore, or with post-plant application of Insignia.
Evaluation of Fungicides for Control of Rapid Blight of Poa trivialis (2003)Rapid blight is a new disease of cool season turf grasses that has occurred on over a dozen golf courses in Arizona. It is now known to be caused by Labyrinthula terrestris, an organism in a group referred to as the marine slime molds. A trial was conducted in fall 2003 and winter 2004 to evaluate efficacy of selected fungicides for control of rapid blight at a golf course in central Arizona with a previous history of disease. Plots were established in late October2003 on a practice green on which Bermuda was overseeded with Poa trivialis. Treatments included Compass, Insignia, Fore, Bordeaux, Kocide 2000, Microthiol Disperss, Ecoguard and Floradox in various combinations and application dates. Disease symptoms appeared about 6 weeks after the first mowing and were evaluated in mid January. Results indicate that applications of Fore, Insignia and tank mixes of Insignia and Compass with Fore gave excellent control. Bordeaux, Compass alone, Compass alternated with Fore, Insignia alone, and Kocide gave good control. Microthiol Disperss, Floradox and Ecoguard gave poor control.
Use of Foramsufulron (TADS) as a Transition Agent to Remove Poa Trivialis from an Overseeded Tifgreen Bermudagrass Putting GreenFive sulfonylurea urea herbicides and one PGR were applied to a Tifgreen bermudagrass putting green to determine their response as spring applied transition aids to enhance the removal of Poa trivialis ovrseed. All sufonyl urea herbicide caused marginal to extreme injury to Poa trivialis by 9 DAT, which lasted at least a minimum of 3 weeks. Manor caused the least amount of injury and discoloration, but had little effect in promoting the transition back to bermudagrass. Tranxit caused extreme plot injury (leaf bronzing), but forced transition. The injury resulted in unacceptable quality. Embark PGR enhanced transition at 9 DAT only, with acceptable quality. After a second application of Emark, quality was reduced to sub-marginal levels, which was caused by straw colored leaf sheaths. TADS increased Bermuda transition at 9 DAT, but not at 23 DAT, regardless of the addition of fungicides, or not. The addition of fungicides to TADS in general did not affect color, quality or turf transition, with the exception on Jens 7 (38 DAT) when the lower rate (0.10 ounce/p/M) with fungicide had excellent quality (6.8) due to readily observed visual density (7.5). Trifloxysulfuron caused increased transition at 9 DAT only, and developed moderate turf injury, as well as poor turf color at 9 and 23 DAT. All entries produce turfs with good color, quality and density by 31 July. After a standard aerification and topdressing, and fertilization with 1.5 lbs of additional -N- / M. No treatments produced enhanced transition without marginal to unacceptable turf performance. TADS at 0.10 ounce/p/M were safer to the turf than was the 0.20 ounce/p/M rate of TADS.
Use of Foramsulfuron (TADS) as a Transition Agent for Removing Perennial Ryegrass Overseed from Tifway 419 BermudagrassTwo rates of Foramsulfuron (TADS) were applied at both low (0.50 lbs/M) and high (1.0 lbs/M) rates of water soluble nitrogen in May 2003 to enhance the transition from ryegrass to bermudagrass. Overall, the 0.2-ounce product/M rate of TADS herbicide, regardless of applied -N- rate produced excellent turfgrass color, density and overall turf quality. The same 0.2-ounce rate produced a good spring transition. Overall, the 0.4-ounce rate of TADS produced slightly more bermuda than the 0.2-ounce rate at the "end" of the transition (June 6). The higher fertility rates yielded better quality, color and turf density during transition then the low -N- rate when TADS was applied at the 0.4-ounce/product/M rate. Note that Tifway bermudagrass has in general, a more decumbent growing bermuda than common bermudagrass, which is less competitive during spring transition than Tifway 419. In summary, all rates of TADS enhanced spring transition. When the high rate of TADS is used on Tifway 419 (0.4 ounce/product/M), then better turf performance was achieved with the higher -N- rate applied in early May.
TADS 14776, Manor, Kerb and Corsair Herbicides for Use as Spring Transition Aids in Overseeded Common Bermudagrass TurfSpring transition of overseeded turf has become a major challenge to turfgrass managers in the southern United States. Turf-type ryegrasses which exhibit increased mowing and heat tolerance have made the return of bermudagrass problematic, especially in common bermudagrass. Herbicides were evaluated for use as a Spring transition agent to decrease ryegrass competition/enhance bermudagrass. Treatments of TADS 14776 experimental herbicide, Manor, Kerb and Corsair were applied to overseeded common bermudagrass on may 6, 2001. Application of TADS experimental herbicide at all rates above 0.21 ounce/product increased bermuda enhancement over Kerb, Corsair and Manor, by 29 June 2001. When applied with extra fertilizer applications, the 0.21 ounce rate of TADS was greater than that of Kerb, Corsair and Manor for bermuda transition. TADS applied at the highest rate of 0.64 ounce (+) fertilizer, and TADS @ 0.42 ounce (+) GENAPOL 150 surfactant and extra plot fertilizer, were the first treatments to exhibit total necrosis of the perennial ryegrass overseed by 4 June (1 month after treatment). However, these treatments created a poorer quality turf, compared to other treatments. TADS @ 0.42 ounce (+) extra plot fertilizer ranked highest in bermudagrass plot cover, with five times as much bermudagrass present than untreated controls on 29 May. This same treatment continued with this trend, achieving 100% bermudagrass cover by 29 June (highly desirable). This treatment resulted in a brief decrease in turfgrass quality at 9 and 16 days after treatment (14 May, 21 May). With that in mind, TADS @ 0.42 ounce (+) extra plot nitrogen proved to be the best treatment that produced acceptable levels of turf quality throughout the transition, yielding the fastest re-establishment of the underlying common bermudagrass. At the close of the test on 10 July, TADS @ 0.21 ounce (+) fertilizer and TADS @ 0.42 ounce (+) fertilizer closed with 88% and 99% bermudagrass cover, and mean quality scores of 6.0 and 7.0 respectively. At the close of the test, untreated overseeded common bermudagrass yielded unacceptable turf quality, 19% bermudagrass cover, 14% living green ryegrass cover, with the remainder being dead ryegrass (straw).
Spring Transition of Tifway (419) Bermudagrass as Influenced by Herbicide TreatmentsThe transition from perennial ryegrass back to bermudagrass is often problematic. Prolonged periods of ryegrass persistence and/or loss of complete turf is troublesome and not favorable to the re-establishment of the bermudagrass base. A group of select herbicides were applied in May 2000, to assess their response to enhance the removal of perennial ryegrass, and to enhance recovery of the bermudagrass. CORSAIR (Chlorosufuron) applied at 1.0 ounce/product/acre resulted in reduced turfgrass quality from three to six weeks after treatment, with a decrease in color at three weeks. This treatment caused moderate suppression of the turf and an enhanced transition from perennial ryegrass to Tifway (419). MANOR (Metsulfuron) applied at 0.4 ounce/product/acre caused a slight growth suppression, acceptable turfgrass color, but a noticeable decrease in turfgrass quality up to six weeks after application. MANOR increased turf density and minimized scalping by seven weeks after treatment (July 24, 2000) SURFLAN when applied at 1.5 lb AI/A, produced acceptable quality turf, no visible growth suppression, acceptable overseed turf quality and color. SURFLAN did not provide any affect as a transition agent in this test. KERB did not greatly enhance transition, and was slightly more effective at 0.5 lb AI/A, than at the 1.0 lb AI/A rate. Both rates of KERB produced acceptable turfgrass color throughout the test. Turfgrass quality diminished to low levels from July 18 to July 24, ranking lowest in quality. KERB treated turf tended to "scalp" more than other treated turfs and thinned the grass at the high rate of 0.50 lb AI/A. FIRST RATE applied at 75 grams AI/hectare caused slight visible suppression for two weeks after treatment, an acceptable quality turf (on six of seven evaluation dates), acceptable turfgrass color and turf density. FIRST RATE did enhance transition, but less so than CORSAIR, possibly less than MANOR, and certainly less than AEF 130630. PROXY was applied on four dates (four, three, two, and zero weeks prior to June 3), selected as a "calendar target" dates observe transition. PROXY when applied on May 13, provided a short transition effect, for a period of about two weeks. Applications made later had little effect whatsoever, on Spring transition back to bermudagrass. From May 19 to June 5, the two "early" applications of PROXY, generally increased turfgrass color and quality scores, most likely by having a PGR response on perennial ryegrass. AEF 130630 readily enhanced Spring transition from perennial ryegrass to Tifway (419) bermudagrass, especially in May and June. All three application rates caused visual suppression of the turf from May 19 until June 5 . Turfgrass color and quality were affected by AEF 130630. The maximum expression occurred for the 0.42 ounce/product/M rate by May 25 (which remained until at least June 5). Mean color scores here were 5.3, on both dates. The high rate 0.64 ounce/product/M actually caused less color reductions in the turf (perhaps as a function of the quicker removal of ryegrass). Reduced turf quality resulted three weeks after treatment for both the low and high rates (means = 5.0). The turf was similar to that of the control plots, afterwards, and superior by both middle and late July time periods.
Spring Greenup of Dormant Non-Overseeded BermudagrassSpring Greenup of dormant bermudagrass would be desirable from a use and/or aesthetic standpoint if low cost amendments could be incorporated into early season management. Four fertilizers, activated charcoal and lawn paint were applied 1 March, 2001 to a fully dormant Tifway (419) bermudagrass turf. Activated charcoal and lawn paint treatments increased turf growth, visual quality and early season turf color compared to fertilizer treatments. All fertilizer treatments generally produced greater growth than the non-treated control, while Dune liquid fertilizer produced significantly greater clippings than the other fertilizer sources tested. Visual quality was enhanced 27 days after treatment by charcoal and paint treatments. Increased canopy and soil temperatures realized from the physical amendments (charcoal or paint) were enough to induce enhanced growth, turf quality and color over chemical (fertilizer) applications.
Response of Common Bermudagrass Sports Turf to Select Herbicides Used for Spring Transition EnhancementCommon bermudagrass often struggles with spring transition, when overseeded the previous fall with turf-type perennial ryegrass. Select herbicides were applied once on an overseeded common bermudagrass baseball field, on either an early May, or late May application in both 2003 and 2004 summer in order to evaluate their performance as an aid in spring transition. The same treatments were applied to the same plots in the two year study. The sulfonyl urea products of Tads or foramsulfuron 'Revolver', rimsulfuron 'Tranxit', trifloxysulfuron 'Monument', caused noticeable necrosis to the perennial ryegrass, which lasted up to 30 days after application, as the common bermudagrass became re-established. The other s.u. product of chlorsulfuron 'Manor', was similar to pronamid 'Kerb', which did not cause as much necrosis as the other products. However, both 'Manor' and 'Kerb' had lesser effects on transition as did the other products. This was generally true in both years. The greatest amounts of necrotic turf (percent plot straw values) occurred 30 days after application, regardless if products were applied the first week in May ('early'), or when applied the last few days of May ('late'). The e herbicide treatment main affect was significant for most turfgrass responses when herbicides were applied 'early'. This was true in both years of the study. In year 1 (2003), the 'late' application of herbicides were less effective in enhancing transition, but in year 2 (2004) the treatment affect was significant for enhancing the removal of ryegrass and enhancing the re-introduction of the underlying bermudagrass. The 'early' application program did allow for a longer bermudagrass summer season, (before the next fall overseeding) , which is deemed helpful in promoting good bermudagrass turf growth before the next overseed season Perennial ryegrass will last long into midsummer, when left untreated.
Best Management Practices for Sea Isle 2000 Surface Conditions as a Putting Green Turf Under Desert ConditionsSea Isle 2000, the recently developed Seashore paspalum cultivar intended for use on golf greens, was subjected to various surface cultivation practices of grooming, vertical mowing, and topdressing frequency, in order to investigate the (1) effects of these cultural practices on turfgrass quality (2) effects on ball roll distance (BRD), so as to devise best management practices (BMP) for cultural management recommendations for this grass in a hot/dry climate. The trial was conducted for the two summer seasons of 2002 (year1), and 2003 (year 2). Turfgrass quality in year 1 was significantly affected by imposed management treatments on all four evaluation dates, in which the groom vs. non-groom contrast was highly significant. Nongroomed treatments produced better quality than turf groomed 5-6x weekly. In year two, the cultural management treatment effect was not significant, and treatment means ranged from 5.5 to 7.8. The nongroomed/ topdressed and verticut at 14-day treatment had mean quality scores of 7.0 or greater on three of four evaluations in year two. This treatment had the least number of cultural management contact events. The most aggressive treatment in terms of the number of contact events (groom/topdressed and vertically mowed at 7 days) never reached a mean quality score of 7.0, but had acceptable turf otherwise (6.8, 6.5, 5.8 and 6.5 in year two). The treatments that did not receive any vertical mowing (groom/topdressed and verticut at 7 days and groomed/topdressed and verticut at 14 days) always produced mean turf quality scores of 6.0 or above. Over the two year test, the nongroomed treatments which were both verticut and topdressed at 7 or 14 day intervals had 12 of 16 possible quality mean scores of 7.0 or more. The turfs which were groomed and topdressed only at 7 or 14 day intervals (never verticut) had mean quality scores of 7.0 or more on 6 of 16 possible rating scores. Turfs that were groomed/topdressed and verticut at either 7 or 14`day intervals had mean quality scores of 7.0 or greater on 4 of 16 possible evaluation scores. For Ball roll distance (BRD) in year one, the treatment F ratio was significant on five of the ten BRD measurement events, with significance occurring on double mowed turfs on three events, and twice when plots received supplemental rolling. Rolling with an 875 lb Brouer roller numerically increased BRD values on all treatments (over double mowing alone) on 5 July, 16 August, and 26 August, decreased BRD values on 19 July, and had no effect for BRD on 26 July. The greatest BRD values which occurred during year one, was a test mean of 103 inches (double mow only) and 98" for rolled turfs. In year two, the treatment F ratio for treatment effects was not statistically significant on any evaluation date. This was true when BRD was taken after turfs were double mowed, and also followed by rolling. Rolling had minimal benefit, and was inconsistent in BRD effect. BRD was almost 20% greater in year two than a in year one. When BRD was recorded only after double mowing, turfs that were not groomed ranked numerically higher than groomed turfs for BRD response on all data sampling dates in year one. In general, turfs which received the most frequent number of cultural management practices (regular grooming, topdressing and vertical mowing ) tended to have the lowest ranking BRD values, except towards the seasons end (16 and 26 August). Although the main "treatment" effect in the ANOVA was significant on 3 of 5 collection dates (for double mowed BRD values), these trends show that in general, regular grooming decreased BRD values more so than for non-groomed surfaces. In year two, BRD values were essentially identical in mean performance, ranging only a few inches in BRD when measured after the standard double mowing. The greatest difference in BRD among treatments occurred on 27 June, as a BRD of 99.8" occurred for turfs that were non-groomed/topdressed and vertically mowed every 7 days versus non-groomed/topdressed and vertically mowed every 14 days (105"). Again note that there were no significant treatment effects for BRD in year two. When BRD was measured after mowing, followed by additional rolling , the rolling effect tended to increase BRD values across all treatments in year one, except in July, which normally had the most humid weather. Rolling did increase BRD values by 10% in early July (July 5), but also decreased, or had no effect on BRD in the middle or late July (16 and 26 July), and then increased BRD values slightly in August (16, 26 August) of year one. Although the largest increase in BRD values from rolling occurred in early July (almost 9 inches) of year one, the effect was not significant between surface treatments. Rolling was significant when imparted across surface management treatments in August of year 1, as at least one of the two non-groomed turfs tended to have the largest BRD values after rolling. In year two, supplemental rolling imparted very little gain in BRD, except in late September. Substantial increases or decreases in BRD did not occur from rolling relative to treatments in year two, as sometimes occurred in year one. BRD averages across all treatments (with the addition of rolling) were from 96.4" - 109.8" in year two. For both years, rolling) was inconsistent with respect to BRD. Rolling on the day of BRD assessment only sometimes increased, decreased, or had no effect on BRD. Rolling as a regular cultural management treatment should be evaluated. BMPS for Quality and BRD Performance together: In year one, the "groom" treatment which was verticut and topdressed every 7 days always ranked the slowest for BRD responses. While this specific treatment always ranked lowest in BRD, it did not have the lowest overall turf quality scores. Groomed turfs which were verticut and topdressed every 14 days ranked the lowest for quality scores on three of four evaluation dates. Therefore in year one, treatments which produced (in general terms) the greatest BRD values and ranked the highest in overall quality were turfs which received no-grooming, and topdressed either every 14 or 7 days. The treatment which produced the lowest ranking BRD values and lowest ranking quality scores in year one, was the treatment of grooming, verticutting and topdressing every 14 days. In year two, BRD was not related to any surface cultivation treatment. Although not statistically significant, nongroomed plots topdressed either at 7 or 14 day intervals, ranked first for BRD in late season (3 September, 30 September). BRD values were in general, 10-20% greater across all treatments in 2003 than in 2002. Although BRD and quality were not significant in year two, certain trends resulted over the two year test period in that plots that were not groomed had mean treatment quality scores of 7.0 or more on 12 of 16 possible (joint treatment) evaluations. These treatments also had high BRD values. Also, treatments devoid of vertical mowing (groomed/topdressed only at either 7 or 14 day intervals) produced mean quality scores of 7.0 or more on 6 of 16 possible (joint treatment) events over the two year period. BRD values for these treatments were always within 1-2 inches of the test mean BRD values as well. Treatments which received the most frequent contact events (regular grooming/topdress/verticut at either 7 or 14 day intervals over two years, had mean quality scores of 7.0 or greater on only 16 possible events. Over the course of the study, in general, turfs which were non-groomed / verticut and topdressed @ either 7 or 14 day intervals produced the higher ranking quality turfs, along with higher ranking BRD performance. Long term BRD values would most likely include a mixture of topdressing and verticutting either at 7 or 14 days internals, with grooming practiced on an as needed basis, especially during the first two thirds of the summer season.