• Aquatrols Surfactant Study on Turfgrass Nutrient Uptake

      Walworth, James; Kopec, David M.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
    • Evaluation of Pyrus Interspecific Hybrids in Arizona from 2001 – 2004

      Schuch, Ursula K.; Call, Robert; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      Pyrus calleryana are widely used in landscapes in regions where they are adapted, however there are many species of Pyrus that have not been explored for their potential use in landscapes, particularly in hot, arid climates. The Landscape Plant Development Center in Chanhassen, Minnesota has started a program to develop small statured pear trees for landscape use in different climates. This project in Arizona was initiated in conjunction with the Landscape Plant Development Center with the objective to test second generation hybrid Pyrus species for adaptation to the arid climate of the Southwest. Fifty trees were planted in Sierra Vista and 30 trees were planted in Tucson, Arizona, in March 2001. Plant growth, survival, and aesthetic characteristics were observed until fall 2004. Out of thirty trees tested at the Tucson site, one tree from the cross of Calleryana 'Chanticleer' x eleagrifolia appeared to be well adapted to the climate of the mid-elevation desert based on growth, branch structure and foliage health. Pyrus trees performed better in the cooler climate in Sierra Vista compared to Tucson. However, Texas root rot at the site decimated 40 of the 50 trees by the end of the fourth growing season. The aesthetically most pleasing tree at the Sierra Vista site was a cross between fauriei x betulifolia. This provenance was represented with 17 trees in Sierra Vista, nine of which showed good performance by October 2004. Trees from this provenance seem to be well adapted to the arid climate of the higher elevation desert and appear to have a number of desirable characteristics for urban landscapes.
    • Forcing Containerized Roses in a Retractable Roof Greenhouse and Outdoors in a Semi-Arid Climate

      Schuch, Ursula K.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      Sales of containerized roses have increased dramatically in recent years and producing flowering plants in containers in a timely manner is important to the nursery industry. An experiment was conducted to determine whether forcing containerized roses will be faster in a retractable roof greenhouse compared to outdoors. Results suggest that forcing roses in a retractable roof greenhouse can shorten the production time and increase quality of finished plants, however, cultivar, time of harvesting, and time in cold storage also affect these parameters.
    • Effect of Planting Hole Size and Amendments on Growth and Establishment of Acacia farnesiana

      Schuch, Ursula K.; Kelly, Jack; Stryker, Frank; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      The objective of this project was to determine whether the size of planting holes and the addition of organic material in the backfill is beneficial for plant establishment and growth during the early years. Acacia farnesiana were transplanted from containers into a permanent landscape using four methods: large planting hole with or without amendments or a small planting hole with or without amendments. The study was repeated on two sites. Three years following transplanting, plant growth such as height and caliper were not affected by the planting hole size or amendments, but differed significantly between sites. Plants that received more irrigation and were planted in a less rocky soil had greater caliper and were taller than those supplied with less irrigation and planted on a more rocky soil. Visual observations one and three years after transplanting indicate that trees that were amended with compost in the backfill had the highest incidence of leaning trunks and sinking crowns (20% of trees in study or 37% of those receiving amendments) while of those trees that were not amended only one tree (3%) was leaning three years after transplanting. Hole size at transplanting had no significant effect on leaning or sinking three years after transplanting. These results confirm earlier research across the country that 33% to 50% organic amendment in backfill compared to native soil at transplanting is not beneficial for native trees, but increases the risk of leaning or sinking.
    • Evaluation of Fungicides for Control of Rapid Blight of Poa trivialis (2003)

      Olsen, Mary W.; Gilbert, Jeff J.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      Rapid blight is a new disease of cool season turf grasses that has occurred on over a dozen golf courses in Arizona. It is now known to be caused by Labyrinthula terrestris, an organism in a group referred to as the marine slime molds. A trial was conducted in fall 2003 and winter 2004 to evaluate efficacy of selected fungicides for control of rapid blight at a golf course in central Arizona with a previous history of disease. Plots were established in late October2003 on a practice green on which Bermuda was overseeded with Poa trivialis. Treatments included Compass, Insignia, Fore, Bordeaux, Kocide 2000, Microthiol Disperss, Ecoguard and Floradox in various combinations and application dates. Disease symptoms appeared about 6 weeks after the first mowing and were evaluated in mid January. Results indicate that applications of Fore, Insignia and tank mixes of Insignia and Compass with Fore gave excellent control. Bordeaux, Compass alone, Compass alternated with Fore, Insignia alone, and Kocide gave good control. Microthiol Disperss, Floradox and Ecoguard gave poor control.
    • Response of Sea Isle 2000 Paspalum to Mowing Height and Nitrogen Fertility as a Putting Surface Under Semi-Arid Conditions; Two Year Report

      Kopec, David M.; Walworth, James H.; Gilbert, Jeffrey J.; Sower, Greg M.; Pessarakli, Mohammed; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
    • Can Applied ABA be Used in Desert Turfgrass Management?

      Kopec, David M.; Suarez, Armando; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
    • Efficacy of Herbicides for Nutsedge Control in Turf

      Umeda, Kai; Towers, Gabriel; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      The efficacy of six ALS herbicides for controlling purple nutsedge in bermudagrass turf was demonstrated in five field experiments during the summer of 2004. The highest degree of nutsedge control at 95% at the end of the summer was observed after three monthly applications of trifloxysulfuron at 0.026 lb a.i./A.. Three monthly applications of halosulfuron at 0.062 lb a.i./A controlled nutsedge 88 to 90% at the end of September to early October. Imazaquin at 0.5 lb a.i./A plus MSMA at 3.0 lb a.i./A gave 91% control of nutsedge with three applications. The most rapid and efficacious nutsedge control was observed with flazasulfuron giving 91% control at 15 days after a single application. The highest degree of nutsedge control with a single application of sulfosulfuron was 91 to 96% control at 28 days after treatment. In general, ALS herbicides applied as a single application or multiple applications provided one month of effective control following a first application. After one month, the degree of control declined unless repeated applications at monthly intervals or as needed were applied for extended control. Penoxsulam at 0.12 lb a.i./A in one test gave only 70% control. MSMA at 3.0 lb a.i./A was applied four times and nutsedge control at the end of the season was 63 to 66%.
    • Growth of Legume Tree Species Growing in the Southwestern United States

      Schuch, Ursula K.; Norem, Margaret; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      Vegetative shoot growth of eleven legume tree species growing under field conditions in the Southwestern United States in Arizona were monitored over two periods of twelve months. Species included plants native to the Southwestern United States, Mexico, South America, and Australia. Based on shoot extension and branch differentiation species could be grouped into three categories. Fast growing legumes included Acacia farnesiana, A. pendula, Olneya tesota, Parkinsonia floridum, and Prosopis chilensis. Intermediate growth rates were monitored for A. jennerae, A. salicina, and A. visco. Slow growing species in this study included A. stenophylla, P. microphylla, and P. praecox. No buds, flowers, or pods were observed for P. microphylla, O. tesota, and P. chilensis during the study. Of the remaining species those native to the Americas flowered in spring and those native to Australia flowered in fall or winter.
    • Foramsulfuron Effects on Emergence of Seeded Turf-Type Bermudagrass

      Kopec, David M.; Gilbert, Jeff; Pessarakli, Mohammed; Kerr, D.; Spence, J.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      Several new sulfonylurea products have (or are being) brought to market for use in turf. One use of these products is for removing ryegrass from overseeded bermudagrass, since perennial ryegrass has become too persistent due to improvements in heat, drought, and close mowing tolerance. The soil half life of sulfonylurea is greatly increased in high pH soils, which are typical in the southwest. Superintendents may need to re-establish seeded bermudagrass after use of a S.U. transition agent if the underlying bermudagrass is sparse. With this in mind, a replicated field trial was conducted in summer 2004 to evaluate three rates of foramsulfuron (0.4, 0.8, 1.2 ounce /product/1000 ft2) herbicide at 0, 7, 14, and 28 days after seeding. Foramsulfuron is sold as Revolver. Revolver applied at time of seeding (0DAS) and 1 week after seeding (7 DAS) caused the greatest amounts of bermudagrass suppression in terms of bermudagrass plot cover and visible seedling vigor. When applied (7 DAS), bermuda cover (averaged over all three applied rates of Revolver) at 21, 28, and 36 DAS was 8%, 22% and 32% bermuda cover, respectfully, versus NTC mean values of 22, 49 and 54% cover, respectively. The second greatest degree of Bermuda suppression occurred from Revolver applied at the day of seeding (0 DAS). The effects lasted up until and included the end of the test on 29 Sept (36 DAS). When averaged over all 3 applied rates of Revolver, percent plot bermudagrass cover at 21, 28, and 36 DAS was 10%, 30% and 40% respectively for the 0 DAS treatments. The NTC cover for these same dates was 22%, 50% and 53% respectively. Vigor visual scores were minimal as well for all rates applied at (0 DAS) and at (7 DAS). Plots remained stunted up to 36 DAS for Revolver turfs applied at (7 DAS) and (0 DAS). Application at the time of seeding (0 DAS) resulted in more bermudagrass plot cover than if applied at (7 DAS). Rate reduction responses were realized only for Revolver application timings made at 0 DAS and 7 DAS (Table 1, 5, Figs. 1-4). No rate responses resulted for Revolver when applied at 14 DAS, 28 DAS. In conclusion, Revolver was safest when applied 14 DAS or later, with little rate effects.
    • Controlling Rhizoctonia Root Rot in Bedding Plants

      Mahato, Tilak; Olsen, Mary; Schuch, Ursula K.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      Rhizoctonia root rot is caused by a soil borne fungus, Rhizoctonia solani and is a serious problem in bedding plants. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of three chemical and two biological products for controlling Rhizoctonia root rot in cool season and warm season bedding plants. Experiments were conducted with summer and winter bedding plants in a nursery production and landscape situation. The efficacy of conventional fungicides or biological products to control Rhizoctonia root rot in bedding plant production and simulated landscape growth cannot be evaluated from results of this study because of low mortality of plants.
    • Alternatives for Tree Staking

      Schuch, Ursula K.; Kelly, Jack; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      Staking is a common practice following planting of most trees in the landscape. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate four methods of staking trees and the effect on subsequent caliper growth and taper development. Master gardener volunteers were involved in this project. Four methods of staking were used on two different tree species. Acacia stenophylla were 3.1 m tall at planting and were difficult to keep upright with one or two tall stakes. All acacias staked with root stakes or short stakes required corrective pruning to establish a new leader. Prosopis velutina staked with root stakes or short stakes developed greatest taper within 6 months after transplanting. Root stakes will not require removal of staking materials.
    • Infection of Selected Turfgrasses by Labyrinthula terrestris

      Bigelow, Donna M.; Olsen, Mary W.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      A number of turfgrasses were screened in the greenhouse and laboratory for susceptibility to Labyrinthula terrestris, a new turfgrass pathogen that causes rapid blight of cool season turfgrasses. Salt tolerant varieties and warm season grasses such as Bermuda grass, tufted hairgrass, inland saltgrass, centipede grass, seashore paspalum and kikuyugrass were not susceptible; cool season grasses such as velvet bentgrass, annual ryegrass, perennial ryegrass, annual bluegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, and rough bluegrass were very susceptible.
    • Velocity Herbicide for Poa Control in Overseeded Turf

      Kopec, David M.; Gilbert, Jeff; Pessarakli, Mohammed; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      Velocity, (bis pyrobac-sodium) was applied at different ai/a rates in multiple application series to evaluate treatments for post emergence seed head and vegetative control of Poa annua var. annua. Velocity herbicide, when applied to perennial ryegrass overseed turf with heavy PA infestations, caused periodic discoloration of the ryegrass and yellowing/bronzing of the PA. The leaf yellowing of PA caused by Velocity is in contrast to color enhancement of PA from Proxy/Primo tank mixes. Seed head suppression of PA from Velocity was slightly greater in early April, than in early March. As cumulative treatment amounts of active ingredient of Velocity increased, the seed head suppression increased for treatments beyond the 30 + 30 gm ai/a rate. Above this rate, seed head suppression was increased, but not consistently with the applied active ingredient rate. Seed head suppression of PA on March 5 from Velocity ranged from 35% to 75% among Velocity treatments applied at 30, 45 and 60 grams ai/a. Embark alone had fair seed head suppression from early to mid-March, but decreased dramatically afterwards. There was no benefit of the 30 + 60 gm ai/a treatment, over the 60 + 60 gm ai/a treatment for seed head suppression of PA. Biological response in terms of absolute rate of ai/a applied and response to cumulative amounts of total Velocity were not consistent for PA seed head suppression or vegetative control. No product affectively reduced vegetative control of PA in a highly infested stand of PA which was 40-50% PA. If Velocity is to be competitive against other PA seed head reducing products, rate structures and timings may have to be amended for more multiple applications.
    • Response of Cool Season Turfs when Overseeded on a Putting Green with a History of Rapid Blight Disease

      Kopec, David M.; Olsen, Mary W.; Gilbert, Jeff J.; Bigelow, Donna M.; Kohout, Michele; Twito, Mick; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      Rapid blight disease is a potentially devastating disease on cool season overseed turfs when irrigated with saline water. A two year test was conducted on a closely mowed Tifgreen bermudagrass turf which was infected with visual symptoms of necrotic patches of turf, and various degrees of blighting. The test included a broad representation of turf species for overseeding in an effort to (1) determine selected specie/cultivar susceptibility and disease expression to rapid blight in the field and (2) survey and assess the association of laboratory isolate detection from field sampling, with disease occurrence and severity of expression of field maintained overseed turf. Over a two year period, Rapid blight, caused by Labyrinthula terrestris was capable of infesting most cool season grasses in this test. In year one, Dawson CRF, SRX 555 slender creeping red fescue, and SR 105210 slender creeping red fescue showed no positive lab detection results from field plots. In year two (2003-2004), only SRX 555 SLQ had only 1 plot known to carry Labyrinthula throughout the main infestation season. In year two, essentially all turf plots showed some symptomology of disease expression. This was confirmed by lab identification. Tiller infection rates varied from 2% to 80% infection in the lab from field samples. The relationship between tiller infection rates and field plot disease expression was determined by Pearson’s product and Spearman Rank correlation coefficients. Field plot disease scores were correlated with percent tiller infection rates, R² = -0.56 plot basis, and R² = –0.71 treatment mean basis, respectively. Spearman Rank correlation coefficients were R² =; -0.62 on a plot basis, and R² =–0.78 based on treatment means Agreement between the disease condition (yes/no) vs. lab findings (positive/negative) occurred on 51 of 59 plot cases, and was significant compared to chance alone occurrences. Over two years, entries which had low disease scores included Fult’s alkali grass, Dawson creeping red fescue, SRX 555 SLQ slender creeping red fescue, SR 5210 slender creeping red fescue, and Providence creeping bentgrass. Over two years, entries which produced high field disease rating scores included SR 3100 Hard fescue, TransEze intermediate ryegrass, SR 4400 perennial ryegrass, SR 7200 velvet bentgrass, SR 7100 colonial bentgrass, Sabre and Laser Poa trivialis, and Redtop.
    • Spring Greenup of Dormant Non-Overseeded Bermudagrass

      Gilbert, Jeff J.; Kopec, David M.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      Spring Greenup of dormant bermudagrass would be desirable from a use and/or aesthetic standpoint if low cost amendments could be incorporated into early season management. Four fertilizers, activated charcoal and lawn paint were applied 1 March, 2001 to a fully dormant Tifway (419) bermudagrass turf. Activated charcoal and lawn paint treatments increased turf growth, visual quality and early season turf color compared to fertilizer treatments. All fertilizer treatments generally produced greater growth than the non-treated control, while Dune liquid fertilizer produced significantly greater clippings than the other fertilizer sources tested. Visual quality was enhanced 27 days after treatment by charcoal and paint treatments. Increased canopy and soil temperatures realized from the physical amendments (charcoal or paint) were enough to induce enhanced growth, turf quality and color over chemical (fertilizer) applications.
    • Penoxsulam as a Potential Post-Emergence for Khakiweed (Alternanthera pungens)

      Kopec, David M.; Gilbert, Jeff; Pessarakli, Mohammed; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      Post emergence applications of penoxsulam herbicide were generally ineffective in weed control of Khakiweed, (Alternanthera pungens). Moderate control was achieved by the high rate of granular Penoxsulam (0.052 G, 180-lbs. acre). This treatment had 28%, 34%, and 32% Khakiweed control on September 20, September 23 and September 29, respectively. Other rates resulted in minimal or negative control. The liquid SC formulation provided minimal control, at rates tested. Penoxsulam did discolor khakiweed, but did not cause enough injury to result in stand reduction. Further aspects for investigating Penoxsulam for control of this weed is presented.
    • Response of Common Bermudagrass Sports Turf to Select Herbicides Used for Spring Transition Enhancement

      Kopec, David M.; Gilbert, Jeff J.; Pessarakli, Mohammed; Evans, Phillip; Ventura, Bo; Umeda, Kai; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      Common bermudagrass often struggles with spring transition, when overseeded the previous fall with turf-type perennial ryegrass. Select herbicides were applied once on an overseeded common bermudagrass baseball field, on either an early May, or late May application in both 2003 and 2004 summer in order to evaluate their performance as an aid in spring transition. The same treatments were applied to the same plots in the two year study. The sulfonyl urea products of Tads or foramsulfuron 'Revolver', rimsulfuron 'Tranxit', trifloxysulfuron 'Monument', caused noticeable necrosis to the perennial ryegrass, which lasted up to 30 days after application, as the common bermudagrass became re-established. The other s.u. product of chlorsulfuron 'Manor', was similar to pronamid 'Kerb', which did not cause as much necrosis as the other products. However, both 'Manor' and 'Kerb' had lesser effects on transition as did the other products. This was generally true in both years. The greatest amounts of necrotic turf (percent plot straw values) occurred 30 days after application, regardless if products were applied the first week in May ('early'), or when applied the last few days of May ('late'). The e herbicide treatment main affect was significant for most turfgrass responses when herbicides were applied 'early'. This was true in both years of the study. In year 1 (2003), the 'late' application of herbicides were less effective in enhancing transition, but in year 2 (2004) the treatment affect was significant for enhancing the removal of ryegrass and enhancing the re-introduction of the underlying bermudagrass. The 'early' application program did allow for a longer bermudagrass summer season, (before the next fall overseeding) , which is deemed helpful in promoting good bermudagrass turf growth before the next overseed season Perennial ryegrass will last long into midsummer, when left untreated.
    • Application of Proxy PGR for Poa Seed Head Suppression, 2000

      Kopec, David M.; Gilbert, Jeff J.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      Proxy (ethephon) was applied to 100% pure stands of Poa annua as either a single or repeat application 24 days apart at both a five and ten-ounce product rate per 1000 square feet. Percent plot seed heads were decreased significantly on three of five evaluation dates before either the loss of treatment effect and/or environmental conditions triggered profuse flowering (by 20 April, 2000). The five-ounce rate produced moderate seed head suppression at 16 and 25 days after the first treatments by which afterwards, control was minimal. By April, the five-ounce repeat applications were no better in suppression of seed heads than either of the single applications, regardless of application timing (March 3 or 29). The ten-ounce rates generally produced 40% - 80% greater seed heads suppression than the five-ounce rate treatments. Maximum seed head control was achieved by the repeat applications (March 3 and 29) of the ten-ounce rate, which consistently produced between 8% and 19%, seed head cover up until the first ten days of April 2000. Proxy, when applied at the five-ounce/M rate had the greatest effect in seed head suppression early in the test (10 March). Perhaps earlier season applications at the five-ounce rate may be necessary to manifest greater suppression initially, and perhaps in a cumulative fashion for season long control.
    • USGA Distichlis Report University of Arizona Summer 2003

      Kopec, David M.; Gilbert, Jeff J.; Pessarakli, Mohammed; Evans, Phillip; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      The U/A twenty-one clone saltgtrass accession nursery received a mowing height of 7/8" (or less) in 2003. In spring of 2003, clonal accessions C-8, A51, A53, and A138 produced the quickest green-up in early April. Accessions with good quality turf performance in spring/early summer included A138, A51, C-8, A65, A48, and A53. Starting in July, all plots were split with a rolling treatment (850 lb. roller, 2 passes, 2-3 times weekly) up until early October. The main effect of rolling caused increased positive responses for certain clonal accessions, others showed no response, while yet others showed decreased performance from the rolling treatment. Rolling increased positive turf responses among turf clones with showed good turf quality when not rolled. This occurred for nine of the twenty-one clones in this test, all when mowed 3 times weekly at 7/8". Accumulated rolling increased turf performance to enhanced and acceptable levels of quality (6.0 or greater) by the end of September. This was true for nine of the twenty-one clones as well. Accessions, which produced good quality turf (after rolling started in June) throughout the summer, included the following: A138, A65, A86, A137, A48, A51, and A40. Accessions which produced the best quality turfs when unrolled included A138. Likewise, turf density visual scores produced similar accession X rolling interactions. Eleven of the twenty-one clones produced a denser appearing turf after rolling, nine of which had mean visual density scores within the range of 6.3 - 8.7, when rolled. This enhanced response to rolling improved the overall appearance (turf quality) of select clonal accessions over their unrolled counterparts. Initial response to repeated rolling and lower mowing heights showed a favorable response among certain clonal accessions.