• 2002-2003 Overseeding Turf Trials

      Kopec, David M.; Gilbert, Jeff J.; Pessarakli, Mohammed; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      Sixty-four overseed turf entries were evaluated from October 2002, to June 2003 for turf when overseeded on Tifway bermudagrass fairway turf. Overseed entries included 43 single variety (or experimental synthetics) of perennial ryegrass, 2 annual ryegrasses, 6 entries of intermediate or 'hybrid' ryegrass, 5 entries of Poa trivialis (PT), one blend of perennial ryegrass, 4 mixtures (two or more species together) and 3 fescues. The main effect of "overseed grass entry" was highly significant on all dates for all visual turf responses, which included establishment, color quality, density, texture, and spring transition. The greatest amount of variation occurred within the perennial ryegrass group as a whole, showing the diversity within this species for overseeding performance. Annual ryegrass provided quick germination and ground coverage in the fall and a quick spring transition, but was of poor turf quality. Intermediate ryegrasses had performance values between that of perennial and annual ryegrass, some of which provided moderately good turf performance and good transition. Poa trivialis was slow to establish, but provided good quality and excellent plot texture, however they had poor transitional qualities. Final quality mean scores ranged from 3.0 (P-02-0047 PT) to 7.7. There were three entries, which averaged 7.7 at the close of the test, which included Mach 1 PR, SR 4500 PR, and Pace PR. The entries IG-2, Greenville PR, Express PR, Bar LO 2001, Hawkeye, Partee finished at 7.3 for quality. Among the intermediate ryegrass entries, Froghair finished with a mean quality score of 7.0, followed by Pick 00- A-LH (5.3). All three fescues produced mean quality scores of 6.0 or better on 8 June (Hardtop fescue leading at 6.7 for quality). The Labarinth tall fescue did have 62% Bermuda at the end of the test, compared to 65% for all entries at that time. Entries which had a mean quality score of 7.0 or more in June, along with a bermuda transition of close to 75% or more at the termination of the test included the following entries; Citation Fore, Mach 1, BarGold, Bar LP 2001, Pace, Greenville OSP, and Express.
    • AEF 130360 Overseeding Safety

      Kopec, David M.; Gilbert, Jeff J.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      Several items need consideration when products are evaluated for use as transition agents. These are (1) efficacy of ryegrass removal [rate of ryegrass decline and appearance of turf during transition], (2) tolerance and performance of incoming bermudagrass and (3) application safety for next season’s repeat overseed operations. This test was designed to evaluate application safety for the next overseeding which occurs in the early fall. Therefore, AEF was applied in the summer to bermudagrass turf prior to overseed operations. Most responses of the perennial ryegrass (overseed) turf to previous treatments of AEF 130360 occurred immediately after overseeding, from mid-October to early November. AEF 130360 applied 2 weeks before overseeding caused a significant decrease in seedling vigor, percent plot ryegrass cover, and percent bermudagrass plot straw present. Both AEF treatments applied closest to overseeding (2 weeks prior) had the least amount of initial ryegrass, the greatest amount of green bermudagrass, and later in the season, the most amount of straw (dormant) bermudagrass. Differences in turfgrass quality were not significant due to treatments at any time throughout the test, and most treatments ranked higher than the control in overall quality. Under the conditions of this test, application of AEF 130360 at either 0.64 or 1.28 ounces/product/M made one month before actual oversseding did not cause detrimental effects to ryegrass emergence, ryegrass cover, turfgrass color or overall quality.
    • Alternatives for Tree Staking

      Schuch, Ursula K.; Kelly, Jack; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      Staking is a common practice following planting of most trees in the landscape. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate four methods of staking trees and the effect on subsequent caliper growth and taper development. Master gardener volunteers were involved in this project. Four methods of staking were used on two different tree species. Acacia stenophylla were 3.1 m tall at planting and were difficult to keep upright with one or two tall stakes. All acacias staked with root stakes or short stakes required corrective pruning to establish a new leader. Prosopis velutina staked with root stakes or short stakes developed greatest taper within 6 months after transplanting. Root stakes will not require removal of staking materials.
    • Application of Proxy PGR for Poa Seed Head Suppression, 2000

      Kopec, David M.; Gilbert, Jeff J.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      Proxy (ethephon) was applied to 100% pure stands of Poa annua as either a single or repeat application 24 days apart at both a five and ten-ounce product rate per 1000 square feet. Percent plot seed heads were decreased significantly on three of five evaluation dates before either the loss of treatment effect and/or environmental conditions triggered profuse flowering (by 20 April, 2000). The five-ounce rate produced moderate seed head suppression at 16 and 25 days after the first treatments by which afterwards, control was minimal. By April, the five-ounce repeat applications were no better in suppression of seed heads than either of the single applications, regardless of application timing (March 3 or 29). The ten-ounce rates generally produced 40% - 80% greater seed heads suppression than the five-ounce rate treatments. Maximum seed head control was achieved by the repeat applications (March 3 and 29) of the ten-ounce rate, which consistently produced between 8% and 19%, seed head cover up until the first ten days of April 2000. Proxy, when applied at the five-ounce/M rate had the greatest effect in seed head suppression early in the test (10 March). Perhaps earlier season applications at the five-ounce rate may be necessary to manifest greater suppression initially, and perhaps in a cumulative fashion for season long control.
    • Aquatrols Surfactant Study on Turfgrass Nutrient Uptake

      Walworth, James; Kopec, David M.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
    • Best Management Practices for Sea Isle 2000 Surface Conditions as a Putting Green Turf Under Desert Conditions

      Kopec, David M.; Gilbert, Jeff J.; Walworth, James; Pessarakli, Mohammed; Kerr, D.; Spence, J.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      Sea Isle 2000, the recently developed Seashore paspalum cultivar intended for use on golf greens, was subjected to various surface cultivation practices of grooming, vertical mowing, and topdressing frequency, in order to investigate the (1) effects of these cultural practices on turfgrass quality (2) effects on ball roll distance (BRD), so as to devise best management practices (BMP) for cultural management recommendations for this grass in a hot/dry climate. The trial was conducted for the two summer seasons of 2002 (year1), and 2003 (year 2). Turfgrass quality in year 1 was significantly affected by imposed management treatments on all four evaluation dates, in which the groom vs. non-groom contrast was highly significant. Nongroomed treatments produced better quality than turf groomed 5-6x weekly. In year two, the cultural management treatment effect was not significant, and treatment means ranged from 5.5 to 7.8. The nongroomed/ topdressed and verticut at 14-day treatment had mean quality scores of 7.0 or greater on three of four evaluations in year two. This treatment had the least number of cultural management contact events. The most aggressive treatment in terms of the number of contact events (groom/topdressed and vertically mowed at 7 days) never reached a mean quality score of 7.0, but had acceptable turf otherwise (6.8, 6.5, 5.8 and 6.5 in year two). The treatments that did not receive any vertical mowing (groom/topdressed and verticut at 7 days and groomed/topdressed and verticut at 14 days) always produced mean turf quality scores of 6.0 or above. Over the two year test, the nongroomed treatments which were both verticut and topdressed at 7 or 14 day intervals had 12 of 16 possible quality mean scores of 7.0 or more. The turfs which were groomed and topdressed only at 7 or 14 day intervals (never verticut) had mean quality scores of 7.0 or more on 6 of 16 possible rating scores. Turfs that were groomed/topdressed and verticut at either 7 or 14`day intervals had mean quality scores of 7.0 or greater on 4 of 16 possible evaluation scores. For Ball roll distance (BRD) in year one, the treatment F ratio was significant on five of the ten BRD measurement events, with significance occurring on double mowed turfs on three events, and twice when plots received supplemental rolling. Rolling with an 875 lb Brouer roller numerically increased BRD values on all treatments (over double mowing alone) on 5 July, 16 August, and 26 August, decreased BRD values on 19 July, and had no effect for BRD on 26 July. The greatest BRD values which occurred during year one, was a test mean of 103 inches (double mow only) and 98" for rolled turfs. In year two, the treatment F ratio for treatment effects was not statistically significant on any evaluation date. This was true when BRD was taken after turfs were double mowed, and also followed by rolling. Rolling had minimal benefit, and was inconsistent in BRD effect. BRD was almost 20% greater in year two than a in year one. When BRD was recorded only after double mowing, turfs that were not groomed ranked numerically higher than groomed turfs for BRD response on all data sampling dates in year one. In general, turfs which received the most frequent number of cultural management practices (regular grooming, topdressing and vertical mowing ) tended to have the lowest ranking BRD values, except towards the seasons end (16 and 26 August). Although the main "treatment" effect in the ANOVA was significant on 3 of 5 collection dates (for double mowed BRD values), these trends show that in general, regular grooming decreased BRD values more so than for non-groomed surfaces. In year two, BRD values were essentially identical in mean performance, ranging only a few inches in BRD when measured after the standard double mowing. The greatest difference in BRD among treatments occurred on 27 June, as a BRD of 99.8" occurred for turfs that were non-groomed/topdressed and vertically mowed every 7 days versus non-groomed/topdressed and vertically mowed every 14 days (105"). Again note that there were no significant treatment effects for BRD in year two. When BRD was measured after mowing, followed by additional rolling , the rolling effect tended to increase BRD values across all treatments in year one, except in July, which normally had the most humid weather. Rolling did increase BRD values by 10% in early July (July 5), but also decreased, or had no effect on BRD in the middle or late July (16 and 26 July), and then increased BRD values slightly in August (16, 26 August) of year one. Although the largest increase in BRD values from rolling occurred in early July (almost 9 inches) of year one, the effect was not significant between surface treatments. Rolling was significant when imparted across surface management treatments in August of year 1, as at least one of the two non-groomed turfs tended to have the largest BRD values after rolling. In year two, supplemental rolling imparted very little gain in BRD, except in late September. Substantial increases or decreases in BRD did not occur from rolling relative to treatments in year two, as sometimes occurred in year one. BRD averages across all treatments (with the addition of rolling) were from 96.4" - 109.8" in year two. For both years, rolling) was inconsistent with respect to BRD. Rolling on the day of BRD assessment only sometimes increased, decreased, or had no effect on BRD. Rolling as a regular cultural management treatment should be evaluated. BMPS for Quality and BRD Performance together: In year one, the "groom" treatment which was verticut and topdressed every 7 days always ranked the slowest for BRD responses. While this specific treatment always ranked lowest in BRD, it did not have the lowest overall turf quality scores. Groomed turfs which were verticut and topdressed every 14 days ranked the lowest for quality scores on three of four evaluation dates. Therefore in year one, treatments which produced (in general terms) the greatest BRD values and ranked the highest in overall quality were turfs which received no-grooming, and topdressed either every 14 or 7 days. The treatment which produced the lowest ranking BRD values and lowest ranking quality scores in year one, was the treatment of grooming, verticutting and topdressing every 14 days. In year two, BRD was not related to any surface cultivation treatment. Although not statistically significant, nongroomed plots topdressed either at 7 or 14 day intervals, ranked first for BRD in late season (3 September, 30 September). BRD values were in general, 10-20% greater across all treatments in 2003 than in 2002. Although BRD and quality were not significant in year two, certain trends resulted over the two year test period in that plots that were not groomed had mean treatment quality scores of 7.0 or more on 12 of 16 possible (joint treatment) evaluations. These treatments also had high BRD values. Also, treatments devoid of vertical mowing (groomed/topdressed only at either 7 or 14 day intervals) produced mean quality scores of 7.0 or more on 6 of 16 possible (joint treatment) events over the two year period. BRD values for these treatments were always within 1-2 inches of the test mean BRD values as well. Treatments which received the most frequent contact events (regular grooming/topdress/verticut at either 7 or 14 day intervals over two years, had mean quality scores of 7.0 or greater on only 16 possible events. Over the course of the study, in general, turfs which were non-groomed / verticut and topdressed @ either 7 or 14 day intervals produced the higher ranking quality turfs, along with higher ranking BRD performance. Long term BRD values would most likely include a mixture of topdressing and verticutting either at 7 or 14 days internals, with grooming practiced on an as needed basis, especially during the first two thirds of the summer season.
    • Can Applied ABA be Used in Desert Turfgrass Management?

      Kopec, David M.; Suarez, Armando; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
    • Comparison of Sulfonylurea Herbicides for Spring Transition

      Umeda, Kai; Towers, Gabriel; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      In six field experiments that were conducted during the spring of 2004 with seven sulfonylurea herbicides for removing perennial ryegrass from bermudagrass turf, the most rapid response and effective ryegrass removal occurred with the latest applications made in June compared to applications made in April or May. Flazasulfuron, foramsulfuron, rimsulfuron, trifloxysulfuron, and chlorsulfuron were effective in removing most of the ryegrass. Sulfosulfuron and metsulfuron were least effective for removing ryegrass, especially during the cooler April and May timings.
    • Controlling Rhizoctonia Root Rot in Bedding Plants

      Mahato, Tilak; Olsen, Mary; Schuch, Ursula K.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      Rhizoctonia root rot is caused by a soil borne fungus, Rhizoctonia solani and is a serious problem in bedding plants. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of three chemical and two biological products for controlling Rhizoctonia root rot in cool season and warm season bedding plants. Experiments were conducted with summer and winter bedding plants in a nursery production and landscape situation. The efficacy of conventional fungicides or biological products to control Rhizoctonia root rot in bedding plant production and simulated landscape growth cannot be evaluated from results of this study because of low mortality of plants.
    • Effect of Planting Hole Size and Amendments on Growth and Establishment of Acacia farnesiana

      Schuch, Ursula K.; Kelly, Jack; Stryker, Frank; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      The objective of this project was to determine whether the size of planting holes and the addition of organic material in the backfill is beneficial for plant establishment and growth during the early years. Acacia farnesiana were transplanted from containers into a permanent landscape using four methods: large planting hole with or without amendments or a small planting hole with or without amendments. The study was repeated on two sites. Three years following transplanting, plant growth such as height and caliper were not affected by the planting hole size or amendments, but differed significantly between sites. Plants that received more irrigation and were planted in a less rocky soil had greater caliper and were taller than those supplied with less irrigation and planted on a more rocky soil. Visual observations one and three years after transplanting indicate that trees that were amended with compost in the backfill had the highest incidence of leaning trunks and sinking crowns (20% of trees in study or 37% of those receiving amendments) while of those trees that were not amended only one tree (3%) was leaning three years after transplanting. Hole size at transplanting had no significant effect on leaning or sinking three years after transplanting. These results confirm earlier research across the country that 33% to 50% organic amendment in backfill compared to native soil at transplanting is not beneficial for native trees, but increases the risk of leaning or sinking.
    • Effect of Salinity on Symptom Development of Rapid Blight on Perennial Rye

      Kohout, Michelle J.; Bigelow, Donna M.; Olsen, Mary W.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      Rapid blight is a new disease of cool season turfgrasses caused by Labyrinthula terrestris. Disease often occurs on turf irrigated with high salinity water and in areas of frequent mowing. The effects of salinity of irrigation water on symptom development were studied in the laboratory using two-week-old seedlings of perennial rye "Brightstar SLT. " Irrigation water was adjusted to 0.5, 0.8, 1.4, 1.8, 2.0, 2.3, 2.8, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 dS/m by adding artificial seawater. Plants were inoculated with a 2x10⁵ cells/ml suspension of Labyrinthula terrestris isolated from diseased turf in Arizona. Plants were infected, but not symptomatic, when irrigated with 0.5 dS/m water. At salinities from 0.8 to 8.0 dS/m, symptom development increased as salinity increased. These findings substantiate field observations that rapid blight becomes increasingly more severe as salinity of irrigation water increases.
    • The Effect of Sulfonylurea (SU) Herbicides on Establishment of Seeded Bermudagrass when Applied to Remove Perennial Ryegrass Turf

      Murphree, Trent; Rodgers, Charlie; Towers, Gabriel; Umeda, Kai; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      Higher SU herbicide rates provided more effective ryegrass removal that resulted in improved establishment of the seeded bermudagrass. In most instances in this study, the percent bermudagrass coverage increased as herbicide rates increased. Glyphosate was very effective in completely removing ryegrass non-selectively. Flazasulfuron at 0.018 lb ai/A eliminated 88% of the ryegrass. Observations also showed that foramsulfuron, rimsulfuron,and chlorsulfuron were effective in removing ryegrass. In plots where ryegrass had been eliminated, faster bermudagrass coverage in a greater area of the plot was achieved. The least amount of bermudagrass coverage occurred in the untreated plots. It appeared that most of the herbicides evaluated in this study were relatively safe on seeded Princess 77 bermudagrass since emergence and establishment occurred in all plots. The speed and degree of coverage in the plots increased due to efficacy of the herbicides in eliminating ryegrass prior to seeding.
    • Efficacy of Herbicides for Nutsedge Control in Turf

      Umeda, Kai; Towers, Gabriel; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      The efficacy of six ALS herbicides for controlling purple nutsedge in bermudagrass turf was demonstrated in five field experiments during the summer of 2004. The highest degree of nutsedge control at 95% at the end of the summer was observed after three monthly applications of trifloxysulfuron at 0.026 lb a.i./A.. Three monthly applications of halosulfuron at 0.062 lb a.i./A controlled nutsedge 88 to 90% at the end of September to early October. Imazaquin at 0.5 lb a.i./A plus MSMA at 3.0 lb a.i./A gave 91% control of nutsedge with three applications. The most rapid and efficacious nutsedge control was observed with flazasulfuron giving 91% control at 15 days after a single application. The highest degree of nutsedge control with a single application of sulfosulfuron was 91 to 96% control at 28 days after treatment. In general, ALS herbicides applied as a single application or multiple applications provided one month of effective control following a first application. After one month, the degree of control declined unless repeated applications at monthly intervals or as needed were applied for extended control. Penoxsulam at 0.12 lb a.i./A in one test gave only 70% control. MSMA at 3.0 lb a.i./A was applied four times and nutsedge control at the end of the season was 63 to 66%.
    • ET Rates of Distichlis (Inland Saltgrass) Clones A119, A48,Sea Isle 1 Sea Shore Paspalum and Tifway Bermudagrass

      Kopec, David M.; Suarez, Armando; Pessarakli, Mohammed; Gilbert, Jeff J.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      The ET rate of bermudagrass is relatively well known. The ET rate of Seashore paspalum in an arid environment is not, nor is there any information on the ET of Distichlis as a mowed turf. A greenhouse test using gravimetric lysimeters was conducted in the late summer of 2004 to measure and compare the ET of two Distichlis clones and Sea Isle 1 seashore paspalum to that of Tifway 419 bermudagrass. This test showed that under glass house conditions when soil moisture was not limiting: (1)Seashore paspalum had a higher ET rate than A119 saltgrass in terms of mm/day, and total consumptive water use for the 19 day test period, (2) A48 saltgrass and Tifway bermudagrass had similar daily ET rates and similar total water use, (3) total water use between two select saltgrass clones was not significantly different . Saltgrass A48 and A119 had a total consumptive water use of 84.2 and 76.5 mm, respectively over the 19 day test period. Tifway Bermuda totaled 82.2 mm, and Sea Isle 1 used 92.1 mm over 19 days.
    • Evaluation and Comparison of Spotlight* Herbicide Combinations for Khakiweed Control in Turf

      Umeda, Kai; Towers, Gabriel; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      The combination of Spotlight* at 1.0 pt/A plus Speedzone* at 4.0 pt/A gave 90% control of khakiweed at 14 days after treatment (DAT) and continued to offer acceptable control of 85% at 49 DAT. Acceptable control of 87 and 90% control was also observed at 14 DAT when Spotlight* was combined with Powerzone* or Speedzone*, respectively. The combinations of Spotlight* with Powerzone* or Trimec* were similar by marginally controlling khakiweed up to 21 DAT. Spotlight when combined with Turflon Ester* or Speedzone Southern* performed very similarly at all rating dates and did not offer acceptable khakiweed control.
    • Evaluation of Fungicides for Control of Rapid Blight of Poa trivialis (2002)

      Olsen, Mary W.; Bigelow, Donna M.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      Rapid blight is a new disease of cool season turf grasses that has occurred on several golf courses in Arizona over the past five years. It is now known to be caused by a Labyrinthula sp., an organism in a group referred to as the marine slime molds. A trial was conducted in fall 2002 to evaluate efficacy of selected fungicides for control of rapid blight at a golf course in central Arizona with a previous history of disease. Plots were established in October 2002 on a practice green on which Bermuda was overseeded with Poa trivialis. Treatments included Compass, Insignia, Fore, Eagle and Aqueduct in various combinations and application dates. Disease symptoms appeared several days after the first mowing and continued for over three months. Results indicate that both pre- and post-plant applications of Fore and post-plant applications of Insignia and Compass gave good control. The best results were obtained with the treatment of Fore combined with Compass that included a pre-plant application of Fore, or with post-plant application of Insignia.
    • Evaluation of Fungicides for Control of Rapid Blight of Poa trivialis (2003)

      Olsen, Mary W.; Gilbert, Jeff J.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      Rapid blight is a new disease of cool season turf grasses that has occurred on over a dozen golf courses in Arizona. It is now known to be caused by Labyrinthula terrestris, an organism in a group referred to as the marine slime molds. A trial was conducted in fall 2003 and winter 2004 to evaluate efficacy of selected fungicides for control of rapid blight at a golf course in central Arizona with a previous history of disease. Plots were established in late October2003 on a practice green on which Bermuda was overseeded with Poa trivialis. Treatments included Compass, Insignia, Fore, Bordeaux, Kocide 2000, Microthiol Disperss, Ecoguard and Floradox in various combinations and application dates. Disease symptoms appeared about 6 weeks after the first mowing and were evaluated in mid January. Results indicate that applications of Fore, Insignia and tank mixes of Insignia and Compass with Fore gave excellent control. Bordeaux, Compass alone, Compass alternated with Fore, Insignia alone, and Kocide gave good control. Microthiol Disperss, Floradox and Ecoguard gave poor control.
    • Evaluation of Pyrus Interspecific Hybrids in Arizona from 2001 – 2004

      Schuch, Ursula K.; Call, Robert; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      Pyrus calleryana are widely used in landscapes in regions where they are adapted, however there are many species of Pyrus that have not been explored for their potential use in landscapes, particularly in hot, arid climates. The Landscape Plant Development Center in Chanhassen, Minnesota has started a program to develop small statured pear trees for landscape use in different climates. This project in Arizona was initiated in conjunction with the Landscape Plant Development Center with the objective to test second generation hybrid Pyrus species for adaptation to the arid climate of the Southwest. Fifty trees were planted in Sierra Vista and 30 trees were planted in Tucson, Arizona, in March 2001. Plant growth, survival, and aesthetic characteristics were observed until fall 2004. Out of thirty trees tested at the Tucson site, one tree from the cross of Calleryana 'Chanticleer' x eleagrifolia appeared to be well adapted to the climate of the mid-elevation desert based on growth, branch structure and foliage health. Pyrus trees performed better in the cooler climate in Sierra Vista compared to Tucson. However, Texas root rot at the site decimated 40 of the 50 trees by the end of the fourth growing season. The aesthetically most pleasing tree at the Sierra Vista site was a cross between fauriei x betulifolia. This provenance was represented with 17 trees in Sierra Vista, nine of which showed good performance by October 2004. Trees from this provenance seem to be well adapted to the arid climate of the higher elevation desert and appear to have a number of desirable characteristics for urban landscapes.
    • Evaluation of Timing Applications of Ethephon and Trinexepac-Ethyl for Seed Head Suppression of Poa annua

      Kopec, David M.; Gilbert, Jeff J.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      Seed head production from Poa annua is problematic on winter turfs, whether they are overseeded or not. Flowering culms are unsightly, prevent a uniform surface, and insure a continuous crop of seeds for the future. A field test was conducted to evaluate the effects of PROXY and a PROXY/PRIMO PGR tank mix for seed head control. Treatments were applied on three different dates in order to evaluate the degree of response of treatments and help define treatment window applications for future programs. PROXY when applied alone at 5 ounces/product/M produced a maximum of 60% seed head control at 26 days after a single application on February 15, and 83% seed head control at 27 days after a single application on March 1. A tank mix of PROXY/PRIMO (5.0/0.25 ounces/product/M) generally produced greater seed head control than PROXY alone. The tank mix produced seed head control effects quicker, greater, and longer than PROXY alone. Seed head suppression and percent seed head control was greatest when products were applied initially on either February 15 or March 1, 2001. PROXY/PRIMO produced the darkest color turf when applied on either February 15 or March 1. At least three tank mixes seem to be needed, applied monthly to suppress/control seed heads throughout the winter/spring season.
    • Evaluation of Velocity* Herbicide for Poa annua Control in Turf

      Umeda, Kai; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-02)
      Two or three applications of Velocity at 30 g ai/A controlled P. annua 63 to 82% in two field experiments. Multiple applications of Velocity at 17 day intervals provided a higher degree of P. annua control compared to applications made at 28 day intervals. At approximately one month after initial applications, Velocity treatments, single or sequential, demonstrated 50 to 77% control of P. annua. The activity on P. annua was minimal at two weeks after initial applications of 30 to 60 g ai/A and slight chlorosis was evident. Perennial ryegrass exhibited chlorosis at two weeks after applications and appeared to recover at one month.