• The Potential use of Sulfentrazone for Poa annua Pre-emergence Control at Overseeding

      Kopec, David M.; Gilbert, Jeffrey J.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001-09)
      Sulfentrazone herbicide was applied to bermudagrass turf, prior to overseeding at 0.125, 0.250 and 0.375 lbs. AI/A. Sulfentrazone did not inhibit emergence of perennial ryegrass when applied two days before overseeding. Plots ranged from 92-100% cover (of perennial ryegrass) from December to the end of March (last evaluation). Turfgrass color was noticeably less at the 0.375 lb. AI/A rate, but not significantly different from that of the lower rate application treatments. Pre-emergence weed control based on non-overseeded controls ranged from 51-100% across Sulfentrazone treated turfs, from December 1996 to late March, 1997. The percent reduction in Poa annua due to overseeding (comparison of non-overseed vs. overseed controls) was 90%, 61% 67% and 65% in December, January, February and March, respectively. Initial screening shows favorable activity for Poa annua control, especially at the 0.375 lb. AI/A rate. Further evaluation is needed to assess Poa annua suppression from Sulfentrazone and its potential interaction with overseeding, before cultural management programs can be devised for Poa annua control in an overseed program.
    • Response of Common Bermudagrass Turf to Applications of Sulfentrazone

      Kopec, David M.; Gilbert, Jeffrey J.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001-09)
      Sulfentrazone was applied in single applications at the rates of 0.125, 0.250 and 0.375 lbs. AI/A, and after 30 days in split rate combinations of 0.125/0.125, 0.250/0.250 and 0.125/0.375 lbs. AI/A. Turfgrass color scores were slightly diminished form sulfentrazone characterized by a lighter uniform color change on mowed common bermudagrass. The response was generally rate dependent. Imazaquin caused a light green turf to develop while halsulfuron had no effect. After the first application was made, sulfentrazone treated turfs exhibited leaf twisting/cupping effects at 3 and 7 days after treatment. The degree of effect was also rate dependent. To the lay person, twisting was noticeable only for a short time at the 0.375 lb. AI/A rate. At two weeks after treatment, there was a trace amount of leaf sheath necrosis at the base (older leaves) of common bermudagrass stolons. This was negligible and short lived. At the rates tested in this initial preliminary test, it appears that common bermudagrass seems to be tolerant of sulfentrazone.
    • Response of Creeping Bentgrass to Sulfentrazone Herbicide under Putting Green Maintenance Conditions

      Kopec, David M.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001-09)
      Sulfentrazone herbicide was applied to a SR1020 creeping bentgrass putting green (5/32") on October 15, 1996 and again on March 4, 1997 at the rates of 0.125, 0.250 and 0.375 lb. AI/A. Betasan was included at the standard rate of 5.6 ounces of product/1000 ft2. Turf response to sulfentrazone was mostly linear with application rate, with higher application rates causing more damage to the turf. Responses occurred quicker in the fall (by 3 DAT) compared to late winter (7DAT). Magnitude of injury was also somewhat less in the late winter than in the fall, although rank responses were still rate dependent for sulfentrazone treated creeping bentgrass turf. Applied rates of 0.250 and 0.375 lb. AI/A were deleterious and not acceptable for putting green quality turf. A marginal (acceptable) response occurred overall at the 0.125 lb. rate. Betasan applied at 5.6 ounces product/1000 ft², caused no visible damage to the turf in the fall and was similar in response to sulfentrazone in the spring at the 0.125 lb. AI/A (repeat) application rate.
    • Response of Perennial Ryegrass to R.P.-EXP31130Aand R.P.-EXP31598A

      Kopec, David M.; Gilbert, Jeffrey J.; Kerr, Darren E.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001-09)
      EXP31130A and EXP31598A were applied as repeat applications on June 5 and July 23, 1997 to perennial ryegrass maintained at 3.0 inches. Application rates were 0.18 and 0.36 lbs. AI/A (31130A) and 7.0 and 14.0 fl. oz/prod/A (31598A). Each treatment was applied with and without Sequestrene 338 iron chelate, at the rate of 0.1 oz/m². Untreated and iron-only controls were included in the test. Ryegrass was generally unaffected by either compound, under the conditions of this test. Inclusion of iron (in the tank mix) was more beneficial for EXP31598A, than for EXP31130A. Untreated controls generally had lower performance scores, than did turf which received either herbicide compound. Treatment effects for overall turfgrass quality were significant only on three of ten evaluation dates, and on one of ten evaluation dates for turfgrass color. In general both compounds appear safe to use on high cut perennial ryegrass turf under summer conditions in a desert environment.
    • Response of Perennial Ryegrass under Desert Conditions to Applications of Sulfentrazone Herbicide

      Kopec, David M.; Gilbert, Jeffrey J.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001-09)
      Sulfentrazone was applied to perennial ryegrass turf as single applications at 0.125, 0.250 and 0.375 lb. AI/A, and split application combinations of 0.125/0.125, 0.250/0.250 and 0.375/0.125 AI/A. Respective treatments were applied on June 28 and July 31, 1996. Sulfentrazone caused a decrease in turfgrass color, which was most noticeable at the 0.375 lb. AI/A rate. Decreases in color were generally dependent on application rate. Sulfentrazone caused a slight "pocking" of the turf, which resulted from leaf twisting/cupping. This injury was most evident at seven days after the first application. There was no foliar burning or uneven discoloration however. The turf exhibited a lesser amount of discoloration and injury following the second (split) application.
    • Response of Poa annua to Post-Emergence Application of Sulfentrazone Herbicide

      Kopec, David M.; Gilbert, Jeffrey J.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001-09)
      Poa annua (annual bluegrass) is a major weed problem in winter turfs. It is a cosmopolitan and well adapted weed in most turfgrass settings. Cultural management programs to control or eliminate Poa annua are either limited or unsuccessful. Sulfentrazone herbicide was applied to perennial ryegrass turf (as overseeded bermudagrass) which had high levels of Poa annua infestation (45%-75%) at 0.125, 0.250 and 0.375 lb. AI/A. There was essentially a limited response of Poa annua to Sulfentrazone at these rates when applied on March 7, 1997. EMBARK LITE (Mefluidide) was applied once at 0.125 lb. AI/A and caused some initial discoloration to the turf at 10 DAT. At 25 DAT percent control of Poa annua (seed heads) reached 90% or greater which declined to 58% on April 15 (40 DAT). Turfgrass color was enhanced from the single application of Mefluidide at 25 and 40 DAT on golf course rough turf maintained at a mowing height of 1.50 inches. Sulfentrazone exhibited minimal or no effect on Poa annua when applied as a post emergence treatment.
    • Response of Tall Fescue to R.P.-EXP31130A and R.P.-EXP31598A

      Kopec, David M.; Gilbert, Jeffrey J.; Kerr, Darren E.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001-09)
      EXP31130A and EXP31598A were applied as repeat applications on June 5 and July 23, 1997 to tall fescue turf maintained at 3.0 inches. Application rates were 0.18 and 0.36 lbs. AI/A (31130A) and 7.0 and 14.0 fl. oz/prod/A (31598A). Each treatment was applied with and without Sequestrene 338 iron chelate, at the rate of 0.1 oz/m ². Untreated and iron-only controls were included in the test. Neither herbicide compound (either with of without iron) caused discoloration, leaf tip burn, sheath necrosis, or blotchy colored turf at the rates and timing applications performed here for low maintenance tall fescue under desert summer conditions. EXP31598A herbicide, when applied without iron to tall fescue turf, exhibited acceptable levels of turfgrass color at all times when applied at the 7 ounce/prod./acre rate. EXP31598A herbicide, when applied without iron to tall fescue turf, exhibited a lighter, but acceptable color turf, when applied at the 14 ounce/prod./acre rate. When iron was added, the 14 ounce/prod./acre rate of EXP31598A produced in general, a slightly darker turf than the same compound at the 7.0 ounce/prod./acre rate. Improved turf color resulted from the addition of iron at 0.1 ounce/m ² for tall fescue treated with EXP31130A. This occurred more so for turf treated at the low rate (0.18 lb. AI/A) than for turf treated at the high rate (0.36 lb. AI/A). The addition of iron to EXP31130A did not increase overall quality at either application rate of the herbicide. When iron was added (0.1 ounce/m ²), turfgrass quality was improved for EXP31598A, especially at the high application rate of 14 ounce/prod./acre.
    • Response of Tall Fescue Turf to Applications of Sulfentrazone

      Kopec, David M.; Gilbert, Jeffrey J.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001-09)
      Applications of sulfentrazone were applied to 2.75" mowed tall fescue under hot-humid desert conditions to assess post application response. A uniform decrease in color occurred shortly after application at the 0.375 lb. AI/A rate. The effect was short lived and tended to be minimal in split application treatments. Leaf cupping/twisting was exacerbated from applications of sulfentrazone, especially at the 0.375 lb. AI/A rate. At 0.125 and 0.250 lb. AI/ rates, the leaf cupping was much less noticeable. Percent plot showing the leaf cupping symptoms was also rate dependent and generally ranked with degree of effect. Leaf cupping dissipated rapidly after 14 days after treatment. Color changes were minor, while leaf cupping was the more noticeable symptom response on tall fescue from applications of sulfentrazone.
    • Ryegrass Germplasm Overseeding Trials

      Kopec, David M.; Gilbert, Jeffrey J.; Jensen, David M.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001-09)
      A field test was conducted to evaluate the turf performance of improved hybrid ryegrass (sometimes called intermediate ryegrass) Lolium hybridum versus that of perennial ryegrass germplasm (Lolium perenne) for winter overseeding purposes. "Gulf" annual ryegrass was also evaluated for comparison purposes. On all evaluation dates, the treatment effect was significant for all visual response variables measured (quality, color, texture, density, etc.). The mixture of LHRT hybrid ryegrass/Poa trivialis established quicker than other treatments during the first month (November). Perennial ryegrass entries provided the darkest color turf. Among hybrid ryegrasses, Pick A-97 was slightly darker in turf color when compared to LHRT. LHRT alone was darker in color than when mixed with Poa trivialis. In terms of overall turf quality, Pick A-97 and LHRT hybrid ryegrasses were essentially equal in performance. The spring decline was greater among hybrid ryegrasses than that of perennial ryegrass. Both hybrid ryegrasses (A-97 and LHRT) were superior to annual ryegrasses in all aspects of turf performance. By mid-June of 1999, Pick A-97 had more bermudagrass present (52%) than LHRT (28%). LHRT had more straw-colored (dead transition grass) than A-97 as well. By early July, A-97 and LHRT had 72% and 62% bermudagrass, respectively, and essentially the same amount of overseed present (20-23%). LHRT had 15% plot straw at this time, while A-97 had 8%. Among perennial ryegrasses, Sunshine had the slowest transition (42%), followed by Jiffie (50%) and Future 2500 (71%) by early July. The addition of Poa trivialis to LHRT hybrid ryegrass increased overall quality of the LHRT alone, but slowed transition slightly, most likely due to increased canopy densities achieved by the addition of Poa trivialis. This test demonstrated that the hybrid ryegrass germplasm tested here provided adequate fairway turf performance, and that transition among and between Lolium germplasm is variable, and genetically dependant.
    • Scotts Contec Fertilizer Study - 1998

      Gilbert, Jeff J.; Kopec, David M.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001-09)
      Three slow release fertilizers were evaluated (Contec O.M. Scotts) for turfgrass performance on an overseeded Tifway bermudagrass green from May to October 1998. Products were applied on four dates at the rate of 0.5 and 1.50 lbs. actual -N- per thousand square feet. All fertilizer regime showed little response from June-July for turfgrass clippings, color and quality. After July, differences in color and clippings were detected on X out of X evaluation dates. In general, release/conversion responses occurred approximately one month after application. When coupled with subsequent series applications, the combination of released nitrogen with the water soluble component (approximately 10%) caused the greatest turf response. Clipping production was greatest for the X at the rate of X. Transition from ryegrass to bermudagrass was not affected by fertilizer rate. Additional rates should be tested to investigate seasonal performance of these fertilizers on bermudagrass turfs.
    • Seed Propagation of Cordia boissieri and Cordia parvifolia

      Schuch, Ursula K.; Davison, Elizabeth; Kelly, Jack; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001-09)
      Cordia boissieri and Cordia parvifolia are plants commonly used in landscapes in the Southwest. Although they are available in the nursery trade, Cordia species are recalcitrant to germinate from seeds. The objective of the study was to determine a reliable propagation protocol for each species. Germination percentages for Cordia boissieri of 70 to 100% were obtained when seeds were stratified under warm conditions before germination. However, with prolonged storage seeds lose viability and age of the seed and seed storage conditions need further investigation. Seeds of Cordia parvifolia collected from local sources had low viability and did not germinate in response to several different seed treatments.
    • Spring Transition of Tifway (419) Bermudagrass as Influenced by Herbicide Treatments

      Kopec, David M.; Gilbert, Jeffrey J.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001-09)
      The transition from perennial ryegrass back to bermudagrass is often problematic. Prolonged periods of ryegrass persistence and/or loss of complete turf is troublesome and not favorable to the reestablishment of the bermudagrass base. A group of select herbicides were applied in May 2000, to assess their response to enhance the removal of perennial ryegrass, and to enhance recovery of the bermudagrass. CORSAIR (Chlorosufuron) applied at 1.0 ounce/product/acre resulted in reduced turfgrass quality from three to six weeks after treatment, with a decrease in color at three weeks. This treatment caused moderate suppression of the turf and an enhanced transition from perennial ryegrass to Tifway (419). MANOR (Metsulfuron) applied at 0.4 ounce/product/acre caused a slight growth suppression, acceptable turfgrass color, but a noticeable decrease in turfgrass quality up to six weeks after application. MANOR increased turf density and minimized scalping by seven weeks after treatment (July 24, 2000). SURFLAN when applied at 1.5 lb AI/A, produced acceptable quality turf, no visible growth suppression, acceptable overseed turf quality and color. SURFLAN did not provide any affect as a transition agent in this test. KERB did not greatly enhance transition, and was slightly more effective at 0.5 lb AI/A, than at the 1.0 lb AI/A rate. Both rates of KERB produced acceptable turfgrass color throughout the test. Turfgrass quality diminished to low levels from July 18 to July 24, ranking lowest in quality. KERB treated turf tended to "scalp" more than other treated turfs and thinned the grass at the high rate of 0.50 lb AI/A. FIRST RATE applied at 75 grams AI/hectare caused slight visible suppression for two weeks after treatment, an acceptable quality turf (on six of seven evaluation dates), acceptable turfgrass color and turf density. FIRST RATE did enhance transition, but less so than CORSAIR, possibly less than MANOR, and certainly less than AEF 130630. PROXY was applied on four dates (four, three, two, and zero weeks prior to June 3), selected as a "calendar target" dates observe transition. PROXY when applied on May 13, provided a short transition effect, for a period of about two weeks. Applications made later had little effect whatsoever, on Spring transition back to bermudagrass. From May 19 to June 5, the two "early" applications of PROXY, generally increased turfgrass color and quality scores, most likely by having a PGR response on perennial ryegrass. AEF 130630 readily enhanced Spring transition from perennial ryegrass to Tifway (419) bermudagrass, especially in May and June. All three application rates caused visual suppression of the turf from May 19 until June 5. Turfgrass color and quality were affected by AEF 130630. The maximum expression occurred for the 0.42 ounce/product/M rate by May 25 (which remained until at least June 5). Mean color scores here were 5.3, on both dates. The high rate 0.64 ounce/product/M actually caused less color reductions in the turf (perhaps as a function of the quicker removal of ryegrass). Reduced turf quality resulted three weeks after treatment for both the low and high rates (means = 5.0). The turf was similar to that of the control plots, afterwards, and superior by both middle and late July time periods.
    • Sulfentrazone Effects on Purple Nutsedge

      Kopec, David M.; Gilbert, Jeffrey J.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001-09)
      Sulfentrazone was applied to a highly infested purple nutsedge groundcover as either single or double combination (split) applications for initial evaluation for weed control during the summer of 1996. One time single applications at 0.125 lb. AI/A resulted in 15% or less control, from 10 to 64 days after treatment (DAT). Nutsedge control from 0.25 lb. and 0.38 lb. AI/A treatments were not significantly different from each other (ranging in 10% difference or less) but was greater than the low rate 0.125 lb. AI/A. Single applications of imazaquin and halsulfuron (at known label rates) had better control than sulfentrazone at the rates tested here when tested as single applications. Single applications at 0.50 lb. AI/A appear warranted for sulfentrazone. Split (multiple) applications greatly enhanced the activity of Sulfentrazone at the two higher split rate treatments, both which resulted in a total application of 0.50 lb. AI/A total. The 0.375/0.125 split application had slightly better control than the 0.250/0.250 split treatments. Split applications of imazaquin or halsulfuron at known label rates resulted in slightly higher control. All plots experienced re-growth. Based on these results, sulfentrazone does have activity against purple nutsedge. Additional treatments in a new and different rate structure appear warranted to increase initial control and longevity of effect.
    • Summer Applied Pre-Emergence Herbicides to Prevent Poa annua Emergence on Fall Overseeded Turf

      Kopec, David M.; Gilbert, Jeffrey J.; Jensen, D. P.; Bates, Michael; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001-09)
      Ronstar and Barricade herbicides were applied to bermudagrass prior to overseeding with perennial ryegrass. For the initial establishment of fall overseeded bermudagrass with perennial ryegrass, Barricade and Ronstar both showed decrease in establishment at thirty days after overseeding (October 26) when compared to the controls. Reductions in turfgrass density after overseeding were realized by all pre-emergence treatments in the mid to late fall, depending on the specific treatment. Ronstar applied in one application at 2.0 lbs AI/A noticeably reduced visual density at 30 and 65 days after overseeding, regardless of the application timing ( 6 vs. 8 weeks) before overseeding. Reductions in turfgrass quality paralleled the reduction in density. Barricade applied at 0.75 lbs AI/A at 6 WBOS showed decreased quality at 30 and 65 days after overseeding. This same treatment caused a noticeable decrease in overall plot density at thirty days after overseeding. At 65 days after overseeding (November 30), quality was not quite fully acceptable (quality mean = 5.8), but acceptable density was achieved (mean density = 6.3). Poa annua (PA) established itself quickly. By November 30 (65 days after overseeding) overseeded- untreated control plots had between 67%-77% Poa annua present. The maximum rate of PA control for Ronstar in March was 74% (showing 15% Poa plot cover) and 61% in April (34% Poa plot cover). This occurred for the 2.0 lb AI/A at 8 WBOS treatment, which was similar to the same rate applied 6 WBOS. Split sequence applications (pre and post) of Ronstar produced low PA control (28%-50%) over the season as measured, when compared to single applications which achieved the same 2 lbs AI/A rate. The greatest amount of PA control was achieved by Barricade applied at 0.75 lb AI/A at 6 WAOS (86%-94% control). No treatment achieved 95% control of PA on a season long basis. Poa pressure at the test site was uniform and heavy.
    • An Update on Termiticide Degradation in Arizona Soil

      Baker, Paul B.; Kopec, David M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001-09)
      Termiticide applications are the standard practice in the pest control industry to protect structures from the invasion of termites. However, information related to termiticide persistence is lacking. In 2 field trials, soil residues analysis were carried out to determine degradation among existing and candidate termiticides in 3 different chemical classes. Plots were established to simulate industry standards for the application of termiticides. Study 1 termiticides tested were Dragnet FT (permethrin, 0.5% and 0.25%;), Prevail FT (cypermethrin, 0.25%;), Biflex FT (bifenthrin, 0.06%;), Fury TC (zeta-cypermethrin, 0.125%;) Premise 75 (imidacloprid, 0.05%,), Dursban TC (chlorpyrifos, 1% and 0.75%) and the untreated check. In Study 2 termiticides tested were DeltaGard SC (deltamethrin 0.075%, 0.125% and 0.25%); Dragnet FT (permethrin 0.5%;)and the untreated checks. In study 1, in general, all termiticides showed more degradation in the exposed plots than those covered by the concrete slab. In the exposed plots, specifically in the 4th year, four of the eight treatments had no residues In comparison, the covered plots had only 1 treatment, with no residues. In general the pyrethroids of permethrin at 0.25% and 0.5% along with bifenthrin at 0.06% held up longer than the organophosphate chlorpyrifos or imidacloprid the chloronicotinyl compound. Study 2, after one year, the exposed plots showed a slightly greater degradation than the covered plots. However, due to plot-to-plot variation no conclusions can be drawn from the data, other than the permethrin plots showed less than 40% remaining in any plot.