Sweetpotato Whitefly Nymph Mortality and Adult and Nymph Honeydew Production Following Treatment with Applaud or Knack
AffiliationUSDA-ARS, Western Cotton Research Laboratory, Phoenix, AZ
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AbstractCotton lint contamination from honeydew excreted by sweetpotato whiteflies, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is a serious problem in the textile industry resulting in reduced lint processing efficiency. The insect growth regulators, Applaud® and Knack®, provide effective control of sweetpotato whiteflies on cotton by interfering with their reproduction and development. Protection from honeydew lint contamination is attributed to reduced sweetpotato whitefly populations. We investigated the potential direct effect of Applaud and Knack on sweetpotato whitefly honeydew production. In the field, amounts of the major sugar components of honeydew produced by adults and nymphs collected on day six following Applaud or Knack applications to cotton field plots were not significantly different compared to amounts produced by those collected from untreated plots. In the laboratory, adult mortality and amounts of honeydew sugars produced by adults were not affected by confinement for 48 h on Applaud or Knack residues from cotton leaf dips or following nebulizer contact spray applications. In contrast, mortality of first and second instar nymphs on leaves was higher on day six following leaf dips in Applaud solutions compared with leaf dips in Knack or water solutions. Nymph mortality on day six following leaf dips in Knack solutions was higher than mortality of nymphs following leaf dips in water. Honeydew collected during the period between two to 50 h after leaf dip treatment had reduced amounts of glucose, fructose and trehalulose, but not sucrose and melezitose per nymph compared with honeydew from nymphs on leaves dipped in water. Results were more variable for sugars in honeydew collected 96 to 144 h after leaf dip treatment. Nebulizer sprays of Applaud and Knack to nymphs on cotton leaves also resulted in reduced amounts of sugars in honeydew and nymph mortality following treatments.