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AbstractField experiments have been conducted for the past 19 seasons at three Arizona locations on University of Arizona Agricultural Centers (Maricopa, MAC; Marana, MAR; and Safford, SAC. aimed at investigating nitrogen (N) fertilizer management in irrigated cotton (Gossypium spp.) production. The MAC and SAC experiments have been conducted each season since 1989 and the Marana site was initiated in 1994. The original purposes of the experiments were to test N fertilization strategies and to validate and refine N fertilization recommendations for Upland (G. hirsutum L.) and American Pima (G. barbadense L.) cotton. The experiments have each utilized N management tools such as pre-season soil tests for NO₃⁻-N, in-season plant tissue testing (petioles) for N fertility status, and crop monitoring to ascertain crop fruiting patterns and crop N needs. At each location, treatments ranged from a conservative to a more aggressive approach of N management. The integrity of the experimental sites at each location was maintained in each consecutive season. Results at each location revealed a strong relationship between the crop fruit retention levels and N needs for the crop. This pattern was further reflected in final yield analysis as a response to the N fertilization regimes used. The higher, more aggressive N application regimes did not consistently benefit yields at any location. Generally, the more conservative, feedback approach to N management provided optimum yields at all locations. In 2001, a transition project evaluating the residual N effects associated with each treatment regime was initiated and no fertilizer N was applied. From 2001 to 2005 the residual N studies were conducted at two of these locations (MAC and MAR). In 2006, the residual N study was conducted only at MAC (the University of Arizona ceased operations at MAR at the end of the 2005 season). Therefore, all N taken-up by the crop was assumed to be derived from residual soil N. However irrigation water analysis showed that NO₃⁻-N concentration levels added to the crop ranged from about 5 to 15 ppm. In 2001- 2005 there were no significant differences among the original fertilizer N regimes in terms of residual soil NO₃⁻-N concentrations, crop growth, development, lint yield, or fiber properties. In 2006 however, significant differences in lint yield among N fertilization regimes for the Maricopa location were found. This suggests a possible pattern associated with the residual fertilizer N effects in relation to the original treatments at the Maricopa site.