Cotton Report 1986
ABOUT THE COLLECTION
The Cotton Report is one of several commodity-based agricultural research reports published by the University of Arizona.
This report, along with the Forage and Grain Report, was established by Hank Brubaker, Extension Agronomist, after seeing a similar report published by Texas A&M University in the mid-1970’s.
The purpose of the report is to provide an annual research update to farmers, researchers, and those in the agricultural industry. The research is conducted by University of Arizona and USDA-ARS scientists.
Both historical and current Cotton Reports have been made available in the UA Campus Repository as part of a collaboration between the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the University Libraries.
Contents for Cotton Report 1986
- Outlook of Cotton Markets and Marketing for 1986
- Cotton Forward Contracting Performance in 1980-84
- A Comparison of Selected Cotton Hedges for Arizona Cotton Producers
- Put Options on Cotton Futures Contracts as Low Price Insurance
- The Eveonomics of Linear-Move Irrigation: Preliminary Results
- Is Laser Leveling for Cotton Production Profitable?
- 1985 Nutsedge Control Trials
- Preplant Purple Nutsedge Control in Cotton, Phillips Farm, Goodyear
- Preplant Purple Nutsedge Control in Cotton, Moore Farms, Waddell
- Early Postemergence Control of Purple Nutsedge in Cototn Moore Farms, Waddell
- Lay-By Control of Purple Nutsedge in Cotton, Bill Scott Farm, Stanfield
- Purple Nutsedge Control in Fallow Soils, Tommy Howell Farm
- Response of Bermudagrass to Rotations of Selective Grass Herbicides
- Selected Grass Killers on Johnsongrass in Cotton, Graham County
- Application of Herbicides in Cotton Through Gravity Flow Furrow Irrigation
- Seedling Emergence Studies on Upland Cotton in Arizona in 1985
- Emergence and Yield from High and Low Quality Upland Cotton Seed
- Seedling Emergence and Lint Yield of DP-90 Seed of Different Densities
- The Effect of Low Quality Seed on Lint Yields
- The Effect of Pregerminating DP-90 Cotton Seed in Oxygen and Drying on Seedling Emergence and Lint Yield
- Variety-Date of Planting-Row Width Test
- Yield of 12 Upland Cotton Varieties Planted at 3 Dates at Maricopa in 1985
- Yield of 8 Upland and 2 Pima Cotton Varieties Planted at 5 Dates at Safford in 1985
- Yield of 12 Upland Cotton Varieties Planted at 5 Dates at Marana in 1985
- Changes in the Hormonal Status of Young Bolls and Their Abscission Zones in Relation to Boll Retention
- Effects of Temperature on Floral Inititiation and Production of 4-Bract Squares by DPL-90
- Effect of CO₂ on Cotton Yile and Water Use
- Effect of PIX on Cotton Varieties Over Two Years, Graham County
- PIX Use Under Different Drip Irrigation Regimes
- Effects of PIX and PREP on Long and Short Staple Cotton, Safford Agricultural Center
- Effects of PIX and PREP on Short Staple Cotton, Bonita, Graham County
- PREP Use for Cultural Control
- The Effects of Burstᴿ on DPL-61
- An Evaluation of the BioHumaNeticsᴿ Plant Growth Substance
- Effects of Three Experimental Adjuvants on the Performance of a Cotton Defoliant
- Effects of the Experimental Plant Regulator XE-1019 on Cotton
- Chemical Hybridizing Program (Chembred™)
- Regional Variety Test
- Host Plant Resistance
- Analysis of Progeny 24" + il" (ISO14S) for the Recovery of Monosomic 14
- Analysis of F₃ Date of the Ob₁ᵈY₁ᵈ Linkage Group
- F₂ Genetic Tests for the Associations of Monosomes and Telosomes with Marker Genes, 1985
- Cytogenetic Analysis of Lf Marker Gene and Monotelodisome 12L
- Fifty-Two Chromosome Caducous Bract Cotton
- Cotton Variety Trials, Greenlee County
- Short Staple Variety Demonstration, Graham County
- Cotton Variety Observation, Safford Agricultural Center
- Maximum Yield Trial on Short Staple Cotton, Safford Agricultural Center
- Short Staple Variety Demonstrations
- Pima Cotton Breeding and Genetics
- Reserve Starch in Pima Cotton Plants as Influenced by Boll Load
- Nitrogen and Water Effects in Drip Irrigated Cotton
- Response of Surface Drip Irrigated Cotton to Fertilizer Application
- Response of Surface Drip Irrigated Cotton to Water Levels, Varieties and Plant Populations
- Trickle and Level Basin Irrigation for 1985 Cotton at the Maricopa Agricultural Center
- Photosynthesis and Leaf Water Potential of Cotton Under Trickle and Level Basin Irrigation
- Planting Patterns Under Drip Irrigation
- Water Uptake Pattern by Cotton Roots from a Drip Irrigated Field
- Irrigation Scheduling Based on the Crop Water Stress Index and Precision Water Application for High Cotton Yield
- Scheduling Cotton Irrigation with the Neutron Probe
- Host Range Study of the Cotton Leaf Crumple Virus
- Steron-Inhibiting Fungicides to Control Southwestern Rust of Cotton
- Seed Treatment to Prevent Black Root Rot
- Nematocide Comparisons for Rootknot Nematode Control
- Early Season Insect Control: Effects on Cotton Variety Yield and Fruiting
- Fruit Set Response of Cotton Varity DP-90 to Early Season Insecticide Application
- Pheromone and Insecticide Treatments of Nectariless and Nataried Varieties
- Comparison of Three and Four Bract Squares on Several Deltapine Cultivars
- Rationale for Sampling Pink Bollworm Eggs in Cotton Management Programs
- A Presence/Absence Sampling Plan for Pink Bollworm Eggs in Cotton
- Pink Bollworm Treatment Levels and Pesticide Efficacy Evaluation Based on Egg Infestations
- Field Tests of Shin-Etsu Gossyplure Dispenser in the Imperial Valley, CA
- Using Plant Growth Regulators to Control Pink Bollworms and Boll Weevils
- Report on the Effect of PREP on Cotton Fruiting, Boll Opening, and Boll Weevil Populations
- Comparative Trap Catches in Four Boll Weevil Trap Types
- Whitefly Adults in Okra-Leaf and Normal-Leaf Cottons
- Spring Build-Up of Whiteflies in Central Arizona
- Time for Development of Eretmocerus mundus, a Parasite of the Sweet Potato Whitefly from Jordan
- Early Insect Control in Cotton, Greenlee County
- Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on Cotton Yields, Safford Agricultural Center
- Soil Amendment Demonstration on Cotton, Greenlee County
- Heat Units and Stages of Plant Development
- Harvesting Progress in 1985
Soil Amendment Demonstration on Cotton, Greenlee CountyBoligrow (an aluminum sulfate material from Sweden), gypsum and soil sulfur were evaluated as amendments on soil where differential water uptake had historically been a problem. A crop of cotton was grown and the yield of cotton was taken to determine if an economical change was effected by the amendments. Statistically there was no difference between treatments. A soil analysis indicated that sodium was not a problem in this soil, so texture was probably more related to the differential water uptake problem than was the chemical makeup of the soil.
Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on Cotton Yields, Safford Agricultural CenterA soil depleted of nitrogen by cropping with Sudan grass and removing all the residues was planted to Upland (DP 90) and Pima (S-6) cotton. Nitrogen was added in the form of urea at three different stages of plant growth, applying a total of 0, 50 or 100 pounds of nitrogen. The yield of lint from DP 90 was increased where nitrogen was added; however, there were no differences in yield with the timing nor total amount of nitrogen added. In the case of S-6, fertilizer nitrogen did not increase yield.
Early Insect Control in Cotton, Greenlee CountyCotton was treated at the pinhead square stage with Orthene to prevent boll shed caused by thrips and Lygus. Yield results showed no statistically significant differences, even though yield trends indicated a decrease in the treated plots compared to the check. Severe pressure from Heliothus later in the season and the yield trends would indicate that the insecticide treatment effect on the beneficial insects was more important than its effect on thrips and Lygus.
Time for Development of Eretmocerus mundus, a Parasite of the Sweet Potato Whitefly from JordanDevelopment of this sweet potato whitefly parasite from egg to adult varied from 47.5 days at 17.5 °C to 14.0 days at 30.0 °C. Development of the parasite was faster than that of its whitefly host.
Spring Build-Up of Whiteflies in Central ArizonaThe sweet potato whitefly and banded winged whitefly overwinter and build up in the spring on globe mallow, cheeseweed, and alfalfa in the Tempe, Arizona area. During 1984, the banded winged whitefly was observed to be more abundant on these weeds than the sweet potato whitefly.
Whitefly Adults in Okra-Leaf and Normal-Leaf CottonsThe sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) continues to be a serious pest of cotton and an important vector of several virus diseases of fall vegetables. In our search for germplasm resistant to the whitefly, we observed that okra-leaf selections of ST-8701N and ST-8737N had fewer adult whiteflies. La Okra 5-5 had fewer whiteflies than the normal-leaf Stoneville 213. Thus, okra-leaf selections appear to offer some resistance to the whitefly.
Comparative Trap Catches in Four Boll Weevil Trap TypesFour trap types were used to trap boll weevils at 1 m heights, with and without grandlure, and 2 trap types were compared at 0.5 m height, with and without grandlure. The results indicate trap height may be an important factor in boll weevil catches at certain times during the cotton season. Also trap color, design and other factors may influence trap catches since traps not baited with grandlure caught high numbers of boll weevils during certain times during the cotton growing season.
Field Tests of Shin-Etsu Gossyplure Dispenser in the Imperial Valley, CAThe use of Shin-Etsu gossyplure dispensers at a rate of 400/acre (30 g AI/acre) in cotton fields in the Imperial Valley of California reduced the use of insecticides by approximately 40% compared to fields treated with insecticides only, a highly significant reduction.
Pink Bollworm Treatment Levels and Pesticide Efficacy Evaluation Based on Egg InfestationsPink bollworm (PBW) moths, eggs, and larvae were monitored in three commercial cotton fields during 1985 to assess the potential for using PBW egg infestations to determine when to spray and for evaluating insecticide efficacy. Based on 1985 data, PBW oviposition patterns provided a more consistent estimate of insecticide efficacy than male moth trap catches. Egg/larval relationships indicated treatments based on egg infestations would have, in many cases, provided a 2 to 4 day advantage over actual treatment dates based on larval infestations.
A Presence/Absence Sampling Plan for Pink Bollworm Eggs in CottonA new monitoring approach for the pink bollworm (PBW) was developed where only the presence or absence of one or more viable eggs/boll must be determined. Since individual eggs do not have to be counted, an experienced checker can examine a 25-boll sample in approximately 12 minutes. To use egg sampling for making treatment decisions, it is recommended that 3 to 4 25 -boll samples be taken per field.
Rationale for Sampling Pink Bollworm Eggs in Cotton Management ProgramsManagement decisions for pink bollworm (PBW) control, based on larval infestation levels, are hindered by an inherent time lag between the period of increasing adult populations (primary target stage) and when treatments are actually applied (typically 6 to 10 days). It is suggested that this time lag is too long in many cases for optimal control; i.e., larval infestations may become well established between applications. An alternative approach based on monitoring PBW eggs laid on bolls is presented.
Comparison of Three and Four Bract Squares on Several Deltapine CultivarsThe number of three and four bract squares on several currently used Deltapine cultivars were observed during the early squaring period in plots untreated and treated for early season insect control. The percent of four bract healthy squares counted in June were higher in Deltapine 41 than several other varieties including Deltapine 90. The percent of four bracts between treated and untreated plots were significantly different in only two out of 5 locations. In another test where both DP 90 and DP 61 were compared for total healthy plus shed squares, DP 90 and DP 61 were equal on several dates in their proportion of three and four bract squares.
Pheromone and Insecticide Treatments of Nectariless and Nataried VarietiesThe pink bollworm resistant (nectariless) variety 'Deltapine NSL' yielded as much lint as the standard 'Deltapine-61' (nectaried) under treatments of conventional insecticides or gossyplure and yielded significantly more lint in untreated plots.
Fruit Set Response of Cotton Varity DP-90 to Early Season Insecticide ApplicationNodes to first square and number of fruit in early fruiting positions were evaluated in Pinal County early season insecticide trials. Acephate treatments increased the number of fruit in early fruiting positions at three of four locations. Two of these same locations also received sidedressed aldicarb applications, but no significant response to aldicarb was observed.
Early Season Insect Control: Effects on Cotton Variety Yield and FruitingMany cotton field trials were conducted in central Arizona to compare various early season pesticide treatments on several commercially available cultivars for plant growth responses and thrips control. Treated plots received either aldicarb (Temik), at planting or first square, or acephate (Orthene), one to three foliar applications during early squaring. Although results were quite variable, general trends included: most treatments did reduce thrips populations; fewer shed squares occurred in plots treated at first square; plants compensated for this square shed; treated plots may be earlier in boll production than untreated areas; and most tests showed no statistical differences in healthy square production or in yield.